Posted: June 21st, 2022

PSYC 384 Forensic Psychology

Question:

Write a report on “Sexual offenders treatment program efficacy.”

Answer:

Individuals who commit a sexual offense are known as sexual offenders.

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Most sex crimes vary between cultures and legal jurisdictions.

Most jurisdictions have organized their constitutions in sections like sexual, assault, traffic.

But, only a small percentage of sexual offenders are sentenced to prison for crimes of asexual nature.

There are also sexual offenders who have not broken any laws of the sexual category.

There are few crimes that result in an obligatory classification of sex-offenders.

Other serious sexual offences include sexual assault, child rape (Groth & Birnbaum 2013, 2013), and female genital mutilation (Sex Imposition).

The treatment of sexual offenders is both serious and motivating. It mainly focuses upon learning strategies to end abusive behavior and being accountable for any harm done.

They are treated separately from adult therapy.

The treatment of sexual offenders focuses on helping them to create a better future by enhancing their strengths and reducing risks.

This essay will focus on the treatment effectiveness for the sexual offenders.

These programs are effective in treating sexual offenders. They include cognitive behavioral methods, classical behavioral, insight oriented and hormone medication, medical castration and faith-based treatment. Also, they provide intensive supervision (Marshall, et al. 2013, 2013).

Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT), which is a therapy that takes place in groups, focuses on confronting the irrational thoughts and beliefs of sexual offenders. This helps to prevent them from engaging in unsocial behaviours.

CBT programs include other elements that assist offenders in resolving their problematic thoughts. This includes repeating opportunities to develop and hold prosocial and problem-thinking skills, as well as modifying the behavior.

CBT is used to treat sexual offenders by most therapists. It allows them to closely examine their thoughts, feelings and the circumstances that led to the offender becoming a criminal.

Sexual offenders learn how to change their negative sexual thoughts and behavior through the CBT treatment program. They can either divert their thoughts to something else, engage in household work, or read books.

This treatment program focuses more on the therapist being a reality-based and directive figure. It is not about exploring childhood issues which may or might not play a role in the current situation.

Therefore, the initial CBT for sexual offenders is a task-oriented and accountability-based activity. This is aimed at restrainting offender’s problematic behaviours.

Three important stages can be broken down into the initial CBT of sexual offenders.

Identifying and addressing the issue – This stage involves close supervision, questioning, and supervision. This helps the clinician and the client identify the particular behaviors that include the problematic sexual motive.

Behavioral Contracting- This stage involves both the clinician and client working together to identify sexual problems that need to be addressed.

Contracts may also contain tasks that motivate alternative coping mechanisms, such as journaling or check-in phone calls, and finally, attendance at 12-step meeting.

Relapse prohibition – Together with the client, the clinician will identify and discuss the patterns of experience and interactions that lead to the offending behavior.

Sexual offenders are often subject to demands that can’t be met within the therapeutic relationship.

To be able to implement lasting behavior modification, sexual offenders require external reinforcement.

For clients who are sexually offenders, group therapies are most beneficial.

Facilitated group therapy can help offenders to realize that they’re not the only ones with these problems. It will also help them to reduce their guilt, shame, and deep regret.

In-group therapy is ideal for them to confront the denials that have been used to justify their behavior (Schmucker & Losel (2015)).

This confrontation is important for both the person confronted and the other members of the group who are confronted.

This allows people to see how internal rationalizations encourage and support sexual offenses.

These programs often include traditional therapy techniques like talk therapy, as well as examining the repressed reasons and thoughts that lead to the offending behavior.

These programs may be specific or general for sex offenders.

Insight-oriented therapy- This psychotherapy is based on the belief that offenders can be more effective if they are better informed.

The improvement and alleviation of sexually transmitted diseases in offenders can result in better functioning. It also means advancements in their professional, academic, romantic, and athletic careers.

Insight-oriented psychotherapy focuses mainly on explaining to offenders why they behave the way they do (Rosenberg Carnes & O’Connor 2014).

This therapy demonstrates that individuals have an internal world. It also explains how this world works.

It gives self-knowledge to offenders and most importantly, freedom.

Medical treatment- There are many ways to medically treat sexual offenders and reduce the likelihood of future offending behaviors and thoughts.

Most medical treatments include hormonal therapy and surgical casting.

This surgical castration, however, is completely voluntary.

This combination of medical intervention and psychological treatment ensures that sexual offenders will continue receiving the same treatment even if they stop taking their hormones.

Surgical castration – A procedure that removes the testes of a male sexual offender surgically. This causes them to lose all their sexual functions permanently.

Surgical castration makes a male infertile, and decreases his sexual desire.

The law governing surgical castration in any state is not mandatory. However, chemical castrations for sexual offenders are allowed so they can get repeated injections of a drug to lower testosterone levels and decrease libido. (Lee & Cho 2013).

Hormonal therapy – There are many hormonal agents that can be used to decrease testosterone and sexual drive in sexually abusive offenders.

Antiandrogens are chemical agents that break down and remove testosterone. They also hinder the production and release of leutinizinghormone via the pituitary, which in turn blocks the production.

The use of these chemicals can reduce sexual arousal since testosterone is linked with sexual arousal. (Bradford Fedoroff & Gulati 2013, 2013).

The decreased sexual arousal may also reduce the motivation of individuals to engage in sex crimes.

The current sexual offenders’ treatment programs include a therapist or other qualified practitioners who work to get the offenders to control their actions and treat any co-occurring disorders.

The therapists assist the offenders in helping them to recognize their wrongdoings and to document and advocate for the court regarding the potential impact each of these offenders could have on the community.

The eligibility criteria for sexual offenders are determined by their willingness to take part, risk level, severity of the offense and access to the program.

The condition or necessity for a conviction will usually mean that sexual offenders will receive treatment.

Treatment for sexual offenders may be provided in the community or in a secure environment such as in prison or mental healthcare facility (Brown 2013).

The treatment programs for sexual offenders may not be mandatory, but some treatment is available if the person is willing to receive it.

Also, treatment may be provided to sexual offenders, which aim to label general sexually offensive behavior.

Offenders who are violent or at high risk of becoming violent often receive treatment. Treatments can be incidental or generalized.

Due to limited resources in many countries, some offenders might not have access to special treatment programs. Others may be able to receive generalized therapies.

While the majority of offenders are adults it has been shown that there is a noticeable percentage of sexual offenders under 18 years.

Given the acceptance of sexual offense by the Juveniles, and the possibility of a connection between sexual offending behaviors during childhood or adolescence, the therapeutic programs designed for juveniles have been the mainstay for sexual offender management in all Jurisdictions across the country (Pullman & Seto (2012)).

The treatment options for juveniles in sex offenders confined to juveniles have changed significantly since the 1970s.

The treatment of juvenile sexual offenders used models that were similar to those of adult sex offender (Nolan & Maguire 2016).

The knowledge of the developmental, motivational and behavioral differences between the juvenile and adult sexual offenders has improved. Therefore, therapeutic interventions are now more available to treat the diverse of sexually abusive behavior and offending-related elements found in the children and adolescents.

But, those who receive treatment for sexual offences are less likely than those who don’t.

However, not all treatment is equally effective on all sexual offenders.

Although the effects of treatments that were applied to offenders before 1980 are less severe, the current treatment is associated with a marked reduction in general recidivism as well as sexual reoffending (Wakeling Beech & Freemantle 2013).

The community treatment programs seem to be just as effective than those provided in institutions.

The chances of an offender relapsing if they are unable or unwilling to complete their treatment is higher than those who were given a full treatment, regardless of what type.

Research has shown that organic treatments, such as the surgical castration and hormonal medications, have greater effects than psychosocial interventions.

Cognitive behavioral approaches are also among the most effective psychosocial interventions.

Non-behavioral treatments, however, do not have any significant effect.

The effective treatment programs do not just impact sexually motivated complicated behavior; they also have a greater impact on criminality overall (Yates 2013, 2013).

This essay concludes that the majority of sexual offenders are those who have been convicted to commit a sex-crime.

These effective treatment programs include cognitive behavioral, classical, insight oriented, hormonal, medical castration and faith-based treatments. They also provide intensive supervision.

CBT is a treatment program that teaches sexual offenders how to stop their sexual problems and redirect their thoughts.

Aside from adult sex offenders, there are also youths and children under 18 years old who have been found guilty of committing sex crime.

Treatments for juveniles and adult sex offenders differ.

While these treatments were not effective in the past on sex offenders, they are now significant.

In addition, it has been shown that problematic behaviors can be replaced by those who are unable to complete their treatment. This is in contrast to the cases of those who have completed their treatment.

Refer to

Is it possible to treat sexual offenders?

International journal of law, psychiatry and psychology, 36(3), 234-240.

The treatment of sex criminals: An introduction to sexoffender treatment programs.

The psychology of the rape victim.

Cognitive behaviour therapy for sex criminals.

Are you convinced that this is too good to true?

Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health, 22(1), 1 – 6.

The physicians’ view on chemical castration of sexual offenders.

Journal of Korean medical sciences, 28(2): 171-172.

Sourcebook of treatment options for sexual offenders.

Springer Science & Business Media.

How to treat sex offenders.

402. Sexuality, Law and (In) Justice: Sex, Sexuality, and Law.

Assessment and treatment of adolescents who have been convicted of sexual offences: Implications for recent research that compares specialist explanations with generalist ones.

Child abuse & neglect 36(3), 203-209.

Assessment and treatment for sex addicts.

Journal of sex therapy & marital therapy 40(2), 77–91.

The effect of treatment for sexual offenders on recidivism: A global meta-analysis based on sound quality assessments.

Journal of Experimental Criminology, 11(4). 597-630.

Study of the relationship between treatment change and recidivism among 3773 UK sex offenders.

Treatment of sexual offenders: Research, best practice, and emerging models.

International Journal of Behavior Consultation and Therapy 8(3-4),89.

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