Posted: June 22nd, 2022

MRSC1330 Nuclear Medicine Professional Practice 1B

Question:

Three workers were killed in the accident at the Stationary Low-Power Reactor Project (SL-1) on January 3, 1961.

This tragedy also caused a significant shift in how reactors were operated.

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Write a summary of what happened and the design faults that led to the accident.

Be sure to answer this question.

What has changed in the fundamental operation of a nuclear reactor since the SL-1 disaster?

Answer #2 (short answer).

What is the EPA’s jurisdiction? And what law gives it its authority?

What is the general procedure for issuing a US federal regulation?

How often is the Code of Federal Regulations, (CFR), updated?

How are these updates distributed throughout the industry?

What is SUPERFUND and how does it work?

How does the program get funded?

How many sites are listed on the superfund active list?

How many have been resolved?

Are any sites being investigated to be added to the SUPERFUND listing?

Who will ultimately pay for the clean-up?

How does the International Atomic Energy Agency manage hazardous waste sites remediation?

A flow chart showing how the IAEA deals with remediation is created.

The following are some questions you can ask the NEA

Which countries belong to NEA?

What is the NEA Mission?

What topics of interest does the NEA primarily work in?

What are the advantages and disadvantages that an intergovernmental organization has over an organization like the NRC

Compare and contrast the regulations governing waste disposal between the United States and the international community.

Which are the accepted types of repository for the following types of waste?

What was the status (e.g. concern, focus) of the International Nuclear Community in 1986 after the Chernobyl incident?

What was the International Nuclear Community’s general position (e.g. focus, concerns) after the Fukushima Accident of 2011?

What have been the changes in safety and regulatory oversight since Chernobyl? What impact has Fukushima had on the vision of the nuclear industry?

How has the nuclear regulatory system evolved over time?

The Nuclear Era can be divided by focusing on major events, such as these:

2011 – Present

Choose one of the following events/themes that have shaped the history and development of the Nuclear Industry.

Trinity test or 2 nuclear bombs used in WW-II

General Nuclear Weapons Testing and the subsequent Test Ban Treaty

Development of nuclear technology for civilian purposes, maturation and expansion of nuclear power plants

TMI and Chernobyl

Fukushima and today’s nuclear industry

Write a topic essay describing the importance of the topic/theme, and how it will impact our regulatory climate.

Include a summary of the event/theme and the time frame.

These questions should be answered:

What was the current state of the nuclear industry prior to this event/theme

What have been the lessons?

What impact has the event/theme had on the global nuclear industry today?

What was the effect on the US nuclear industry?

Are the effects of the event/theme still significant today?

Answer:

On January 3, 1996, the U.S. army’s Q.1 SL-1 worked on a new nuclear reactor.

It was intended to be a prototype of low power.

It was an accident that resulted from the ejection a control rod during maintenance.

The main causes of this accident were steam explosion and waterhammer.

This accident is known as the SL-1.

Radiation-induced damage to material

Steam explosion and rod sticking

After the SL-1 incident, water reactors at BORAX and SpERT were tested.

It was found that the required amount of reactive elements for lifting the control rod is too low.

BORAX was designed to reduce reacting power by water steam.

Q.2 EPA oversees the entire United States. EPA is an American agency for environmental protection.

Richard Nixon created EPA to protect our environment. The Executive Order gives EPA the authority to act.

Q.3 procedure for issuing a new US Federal Regulation-

Step.1 – EPA proposes a regulation

This agency proposes a regulation known as notice of proposed Rulemaking.

It is listed in federal. The public can make comments.

Step 2: EPA will consider your comments and concerns-

First, you need to send a comment on federal to revise regulation and then pass to the final rules.

This final rule will be transferred to the FR/EPA. They will review it and post it on regulations.gov.

Step 3: Code federal regulation-

After the complete regulation is completed, it is printed in FR. It then becomes codified under Code of federal regulation.

CFR contains all records of regulation created in FR.

There are many ways to update CFR. These include LexisNexis, LexisNexis (Westlaw), FDsys (FDsys), and GPO Access.

For industry updates, the government offers minimal indexing, limited online publication and limited reader’s assistance.

Q.4Superfund is a program that cleans up most of the land and protects the environment.

It is responsible for protecting the environment and human safety.

It funds the federal share of site costs. It also receives money through income taxes, fuel taxes, and feedstock taxes.

Any person can donate money to Superfund via the EPA website.

Superfund currently has 1322 active sites. 53 additional Superfund sites are also available.

There are 375 sites that have been removed from the Superfund list.

Superfund established requirements about contaminated sites. Individuals’ liability and businesses are all covered.

IAEA-Q.5: Remediation handling

It involves the following activities-

Site character

Choice of remediation

Identification of optimization and remediation techniques

Implementation of remediation

After remediation

IAEA follows all the steps above to handle remediation. An iterative approach is used here.

1: Flowchart of the remediation process

Q.6 NEA countries

Argentina (2017). Australia (1973), Belgium ( 1958), Canada (1975), ), Denmark (1958), Finland (76), Greece (1958), Hungary (1996), Iceland (1958), Ireland (1922) Japan (1972), Korea (93), Luxembourg (1958), Mexico (1994), Mexico (94), Netherlands (1958), Norway (1958), Poland (1058), Portugal (1958), Romania (2017). Russia (2013). Slovak Republic (2012), Slovenia (2011). Spain (1959), Germany (1958), Sweden (1988), France (1958), Turkey (1958),

NEA’s mission promotes education, unity and fulfillment of the public promise to offer a quality education to all students.

NEA’s work is in many areas such as equality, just society, democracy and professionalism. It also focuses on energy and the resources of students.

IGOs’ Advantages

Permanent institutions

Give specific information

Only limited membership

Complex network

Inequality between members

Q.7 Solid waste is not managed according to the U.S. environment protection agency.

These solid wastes pose a threat to the environment and human bodies, as well as increasing flooding and rodents.

There are many types and types of solid waste.

The United States uses two types of solid trash: hazardous waste and non hazardous waste.

A municipal solid state in the United States can be managed in one of three ways: landfilling, incineration, or recycling.

Incineration rates for other countries are much slower than those in the United States.

Incineration ash from other countries can be reused and recycled.

Incineration has the advantage of reducing waste volumes, which can provide additional energy from combustion.

There are 200 sources of waste energy in approximately 14 European countries. In the United States, there are 89 waste energy facilities.

The United States have 9,000,000 tons of Ash per year and approximately 500,000 tons of ash reused per year. Germany, however, has 3,140,000.00 tons of Ash per year. This includes around 2,025,700 tons of annual ash reuse.

In the United States, 5.6% of ash was reused in 2003. Germany saw 64.5 percent.

U.S. 2020 is a program by the EPA that aims to reduce land contamination through waste management.

In the United States, there are two types solid wastes: hazardous and non-hazardous.

Both Americans and Europeans use the same waste law: civil law and common law.

The federal system is what distinguishes the U.S. from other community waste disposal systems.

The EPA provides resources to manage waste, while scrap Tires provides information and technical support for governments.

These are the departments that regulate waste disposal.

Department of transportation (DOT)

Nuclear regulatory commission (NAC).

The high-level waste deep geoological repository is used. In transuranic wastewater isolation pilot plant, the mixed waste radioactive management site is used.

These definitions of solid refuse are also applicable to international communities. Many countries use MSW or HLW.

Q.8 Focus on Chernobyl accident/Fukushima accident

Fukushima, Chernobyl, and Fukushima were both major accidents of radioactive into an environmental and led to the exposure of the public.

Both of these were major challenges in protecting radiological.

The Chernobyl disaster in 1986 resulted from a flawed reactor layout that was constructed with poorly trained staff.

In light of the lessons learned at Fukushima Daiichi’s 11 March 2011 accident, countries around the world continue to implement wellness changes and remedial activities.

Following the Fukushima incident, around 1331 fuels were released by the community and three reactors were able to safely recycle water from it.

Chernobyl accident prompted a change in international law for nuclear industry. A new role was created for IAEA and a new mission. The G-7 nuclear safety heads of state program was launched. Also, the nuclear energy program was launched to ensure safety of reactors.

Fukushima incident has an impact on all aspects of the nuclear industry. Radioactive isotopes are released from a nuclear power plants.

Chernobyl was built in Ukraine on 26/04/1986.

This accident was followed by radioactive substances being released into the atmosphere.

It had an adverse impact on human health as well as a negative effect on the nuclear industry.

In 1986, IAEA Community organized the first review meeting regarding this accident.

IAEA completed an assessment of radioactive effects. Over 200 experts came from different countries to participate in the field and subsequent assessment.

The European Commission hosted a 1996 conference, where the IAEA, WHO community, and others summarized the last 10 years’ results and discussed the economic, health, and environmental implications of Chernobyl.

Fukushima’s accident prompted international action to ensure nuclear power plants safety and a range of ideas were developed for Fukushima.

Fukushima led to the expansion of nuclear power plants for other countries like Germany and Italy.

The IAEA held a conference to establish a legal framework that will regulate and ensure safety of nuclear power plants.

Q.9 Nuclear weapons were developed between 1940-1950s. Their main purpose is to control nuclear energy.

The 1960s to 1970s saw the development of the atomic energy commission.

The NRC was created in 1974 as a nuclear regulatory commission. It focuses on AEC matters.

1985 saw the involvement of the nuclear regulatory committee in reactors and weapon design.

The number of nuclear reactors has increased from 2011 to 2018, with 50 reactors. This 50 reactors was built in 13 different countries.

The nuclear power of the IEA rose by more than 25% between 2015 and 2017, which means that it developed from 404 to 516 GW.

Nuclear fission refers to a subset of nuclear physics. It is composed of a nuclear chain react that causes small particles called nuclei to split into larger ones.

Fission generates photons, neutrons, and large amounts of energy.

It was first discovered December 17, 1938. This nuclear reaction produces electromagnetic and/or kinetic energy.

The mass ratio between two nuclear nuclei is three to two. It consists of radioactive decomposition and produces high mass isotopes. (Cameron (2012)

Radioactive decay is a kind of nuclear fission which occurs without the use of neutron.

A nuclear reaction occurs when a sub-particle meets a nucleus.

Chain reaction can control nuclear fission which is a more advanced version of the nuclear reaction.

There are two types: 235U and 239Pu.

Lda Nordack proposed nuclear fission back in 1934. Otto Hahn was the first to perform it in 1938.

Fission reaction and nuclear reactors can produce large amounts of energy.

A large amount of heat is produced by nuclear fission, which splits an atom into smaller ones and generates water steam.

This steam can then be transferred to a cooling room using a turbine system and produced electricity.

The control of neutrons can also be achieved by nuclear fission (Tabak, 2009).

Hungarian scientist Szilard discovered the neutron, which is the first known nuclear reactor. It also provides nuclear reaction via nuclear chain reaction.

Szilard proposed that nuclear reactors using neutrons in the light element were not possible for a nuclear chain reaction.

Lise meitner discovered a new kind of nuclear that was uranium and the neutron.

The neutron nuclear reactor, which was a nuclear fission reactor that produced large amounts of heat via nuclear chain reaction, was found in 1939.

Nuclear fission allows for large amounts of heat to be generated by breaking down atoms into smaller pieces. This provides electromagnetic and kinetic energy as well as free neutrons.

A nuclear reactor is equipped with an automatic system for producing heat. It used light water, heavy and solid graphite to create a chain reaction.

Produced kinetic energie converts to thermal energy through the collision process of atoms.

Nuclear reactor absorbs the gamma radiation that is converted into heat.

Because nuclear fission generates more energy than coal burning, uranium-235 produces large amounts of heat and energy.

Nuclear fission produces energy and nuclear weapons. You can use nuclear energy as electricity, but it is made from an atom that splits into smaller atoms.

A nuclear reactor is a process that regulates fission to create energy.

While heat generated by fission can be used to cool the reactors, others use molten salt.

This heat is used to generate electricity and heat from nuclear fission.

Water steam is the main application of nuclear fission. This means that it produces steam for electricity and steam.

The nuclear power is responsible for around 15% of all energy produced (Cameron (2012)).

The United States uses a combination of fossil fuel and hydroelectric to produce electricity. It also has about 100 nuclear reactors.

Numerous countries like France, Slovakia and Lithuania use nuclear reactors for electricity generation.

It can easily separate the atom into small pieces and is used most often to create nuclear energy.

It is found in rocks and produces energy through a nuclear chain reaction called U-235.

The U.S. gets uranium from many countries including Australia, Canada and Kazakhstan.

It creates weapons and is an integral part of the nuclear proliferation treaty.

The U.S. nuclear power station uses 200 tons U-235 per year.

Recycled uranium reduces mining and extracting.

The environment and earth are very important to nuclear fission. Peoples get energy from sun which can be very dangerous for the environment.

Many benefits can be attributed to fission, such as abundant electricity and lower pollution. Also, heat is converted into electricity. Nuclear energy makes 35% of all electricity in the United States. This reduces greenhouse gasses.

20 percent of the electricity produced in America comes from nuclear power stations.

France generates more than 75% of its electricity by nuclear power plants. A total of 15 countries use nuclear reactors in order to produce electricity.

Nuclear energy is safe, can produce electricity, and can also be used for steam.

A nuclear power station is a plant that uses renewable energy to conserve energy (Ferguson (2011)

The nuclear industry was primarily focused on nuclear weapons development during World War II. However, scientists discovered that there were ways to use nuclear technology to create electricity.

Enrico Fermi was researching nuclear atoms in 1934. He bombarded uranium with neutrons but the elements weren’t stronger than uranium.

The chain reaction of nuclear atoms was discovered by scientists. It allows atoms to be broken down into smaller particles, which can then produce electricity.

After the complete nuclear industry had been changed in 1938, nuclear Fission was discovered.

The nuclear industry uses nuclear fission to create electricity and energy.

U.S. nuclear industry was established in 1960 by nuclear fission. However, the growth of this industry slowed in 1980 and 1970.

There was a decrease in demand for nuclear energy. Many issues arise, including waste disposal, safety of nuclear reactors, and other environmental concerns.

The United States received around 22% of its electricity from nuclear power plants.

Yes, nuclear energy is vital today. It produces electricity by using nuclear chain reactions.

Around 450 nuclear reactors are responsible for producing around 11% world’s electricity and energy.

Nuclear power plants produced around 2477 TWh power in 2016. Approximately 60 reactors are being built.

Refer to

Nuclear Fission Reactors.

Nuclear Energy: What Everyone Should Know.

New York: Oxford University Press.

Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels using recycled CO2 and H2O in combination with renewable or nuclear energy.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(1). 1-23.

Nuclear energy: Is it a sensible solution for environmental problems?

International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment. 6(2): 693-700.

US economic growth, CO2 emissions and nuclear energy.

Nuclear Power.

North Mankato: Smart apple media.

Nuclear Energy.

Edina is a publishing company of ABDO.

The ASEAN member states’ nuclear energy dynamics.

Contesting the Future of Nuclear Power.

Singapore: World Scientific publication.

Nuclear Energy.

New York: Infobase publication.

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