Posted: June 21st, 2022

HIST508 The Making Of Modern India And Pakistan

Question:

Write a report on how the caste system affects education in India.

Answer:

The caste system has been a part of society for centuries.

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In the past, only a small number of people were allowed to learn.

These groups were from the upper castes (1923-225).

Gurukuls banned students of the lower caste from being able to study.

As it was understood, studying was only for upper caste people. Lower caste people were offered different jobs.

This was why India remained an uneducated country for several years (Kingdon 168-195).

In the olden days, even students from lower castes weren’t allowed to enter the Gurukuls because they were considered untouchables.

Their lack of knowledge led to them being poor, which made it difficult for them to acquire knowledge.

The elite class comprised the upper caste.

This division allowed the largest part of the economy, which was the majority of the population, to remain in the hands a small number of people.

In this caste system, Vaishyas were and Sudras were largely deprived of education.

Vaishyas, who had the money to build their own school system in Medieval India, were able to get some education.

India came under colonial rule and things changed.

It was because activists realized the sad state of India’s society.

They started teaching students from the lower castes.

Jyotirao Phule (Baba amte), Acharya Bnova Bhave, and Acharya Birao Binova Bhave were just a few of the social reformers who worked tirelessly to educate the people of the lower classes of society.

Social reform was needed as lower caste persons were not only denied education but also denied basic human rights.

Many of the reformers knew that education was the core of social reforms (Munshi & Rosenzweig 1225-1252).

This was one of their main reasons for not growing.

This is why some of them found jobs in British India and others like B.R.

Ambedekar was also able to travel to other countries to pursue higher education.

India was an amalgamation of British territories and princely states that were not populated.

India was divided into numerous states nearly 3000 years prior to colonial rule.

The Hinduism, which is the core component of the religion is responsible for creating the oppressive caste systems.

This system doesn’t allow for upward movement in society.

Caste systems in society expose people to stereotypes, bias, and discrimination.

It can cause social conflict.

The caste system is full disparity and injustice.

Casteism is rampant in Indian society.

One cast does not like to interact with others.

This is evident in the existence of different convictions, sub-castes, and castes.

All of these are part of the Indian society’s mode of unity, and incorporation (Pande 1132-1151).

The caste system has been a major problem for the education system of the country.

It is exacerbated by large numbers of people who are illiterate and ignorant.

Their ignorance can even make people delusional and conventional.

India’s social stratification has led to some of the largest partitions around the globe.

The Indian census of 1911 established special castes Brahmin, Kshatriya and Vaishya.

Dalits were untouchables, and the lowest caste.

They are sixteen percent of India’s total population.

They were included in Indian society, and were listed in the census (Gang Sen and Yun 70).

Untouchability was officially abolished by the Indian government under the 1950 constitution of India.

However, the caste system in India is still alive today. It has been ingrained in culture and the state for many hundreds of years.

India’s caste system was created around 7 A.D.

This system is based in Hindu beliefs that the person’s position in their current life is determined by the sins committed during their previous life (Balagopalan 19-24).

Therefore, the birth place determines the caste of a person.

For generations, social discrimination has plagued the most populous country in the world.

It has caused havoc in the education system.

The impact of India’s caste system on education has not been favorable to the development millions of lower caste students (Ackerson 507-514).

They were also granted the same rights that people of higher social class received after Independence.

However, the government quickly realized that without raising their education levels it would not be possible to eradicate such a large number of people from poverty and the harsh conditions they face in India.

The deprived castes were then merged and called “Dalits”.

This was one reason why reservation was proposed.

The constitution made provisions for Dalits and other backward class people to enable them to gain higher education.

This reservation changed the face of India’s education system. Certain numbers of seats were reserved in government institutes for those of lower income (Rao 97 to106).

Many state and central governments provided other benefits to people in order to allow them access education.

Although reservation was made in India for a short time, it was not implemented in all parts of India.

In rural India, where the population was high and the education system was basic, the situation was worse.

While this was true for many years, it became more difficult when reservation was used to obtain the vote bank.

This led to problems in the eligibility of candidates appearing for the entrance exam.

It was found that many general category students didn’t get education in top universities.

The reserved students received seats even though they were more eligible than those from the reserved categories.

This will not be good for the nation’s talent pool in the long-term (Rao Cheng and Narain, 153-176).

It will also create many more students who have less skills.

This is one of the reasons new private universities emerged.

These people from the general class did not receive education in universities and started looking for new private universities that did not discriminate between students of different sections of the company.

These new educational institutions were created in India, further reducing the quality of government institutions. Only a few institutions of higher quality remained.

It was the profound effect of the caste system which caused the decline of public educational institutions.

All Indian Institutions have fallen below the international standard or are no longer in the top 100 educational institutions of the globe.

Global literacy rates are directly related to individuals’ success, as well as their country’s economic and social development.

The extent of India’s land mass determines how much inequality there is in education opportunities and literacy rates.

India has 29 states, with varying levels of social and economic wealth.

Bihar is located in Northern India. It is colonized with the majority of Dalits.

Inevitably, it is one the poorest (Frisancho 6611-649).

Literacy rates hover around 50% because of the dearth in wealth.

Kerala in southern India is richer.

This state claims literacy rates of ninety per cent and is made up mainly by the most sophisticated castes.

This disparity has created a drawback, which I hold dear to my heart.

It is estimated that half of the poorest children in India are related to the Dalit community.

It restricts the opportunities for the security and growth of the Dalit child (Banerjee Iyer 639-647).

While this group has seen an increase in school attendance from 64% to 77% over six years, it still lags behind 84% as is the case for children from other casts.

India has a literacy divide as a result of its caste system education.

Another positive development has been made in this field, such as the increase in primary education levels (Dunn 53 to 70) in the percentage of children who are registered in schools.

The civil rights act 1955, and the tribe castings act 1989 have made it possible to provide education quotas and jobs for the lower castes.

The Dalits face difficulties in education, as well as physical annoyances and discrimination from teachers and students.

This caste continues to have low literacy rates, high failure rates, and a low literacy rate.

International Dalit Solidarity Network, (IDSN), has declared that intolerance and chauvinism towards Dalits are equally prevalent at higher education institutes (Asadullah, Yalonetzky 1151-1163).

It is important to stop discrimination of castes in education so that the system does not become institutionalized at later stages.

According to a study, thirty-five countries found that India was the most affected by low school attendance and high levels of child labor.

Children continue to be in dangerous labor positions.

The result is that Dalit children abandon education to help their families.

The main threat to the success of the Dalit children is their financial timidity.

In ending the education carrier of students, child labor and child marital play a part.

Between 2005 and 2006 18.2% of Dalit girls below the age of 15 lost their purity because they were illegally married.

Bihar received a score of 68% for its brutal treatment women.

Millions of Dalit children have been repressed by such unfortunate circumstances (Bertrand Hanna and Mullainathan 16-199).

North Karnataka’s Xavier school was founded to cater to the special needs of Dalits.

The school has left behind caste-based boundaries because they believe these underprivileged children are key to Indian growth.

Xavier has helped to create a foundation for children’s progress in India. But, it is more difficult for Dalits to get into the workforce.

Sulabh Sanitation, an NGO that supports the recognition of hidden talents and opportunities, has been helping.

Gusfield 351-362 describes the organization’s mission to eliminate manual labor. It guides and trains women to give them a fresh start with training in various areas.

Many intelligent people were not able to rise because they were not favored by the members of a particular social group.

This was the long-term result of the reservation. Many Dalits, who had large amounts of money, were able to get their children admission into educational institutes. (Siddhu 394-401).

Because they lack the necessary infrastructure at lower levels to study and take the entrance examination, poor Dalits did not receive admission.

You will often see that IAS officers in the lower social classes have more resources to educate their children, and thus are more likely for their children to be admitted at higher educational institutions.

This made matters worse.

This is now one of the reasons why conflict at the educational level has started to increase.

Nearly a third of India’s budget is spent on education.

However, education quality is a huge issue.

Their class and their caste limit the accessibility to quality education for children.

Even after the Constitution granted this right, it has been difficult to achieve universal access to quality education.

The 2007 right to education law was enacted (Dreze 1-24, Kingdon 1-24).

It provides compulsory education up until the eighth standard.

But, there are vast differences in who is granted good eminence or elementary education.

The government offers sponsored education, which is provided to the wealthy.

However, those who are not privileged cannot exercise their rights to education.

Indian government has always been inclined to increase the quality of higher education institutions.

Popular level institutions have been created by the government to provide basic quality education.

The Indian education system hierarchy is highly discriminatory and acts as a gateway.

The education system is still seen as a means of social agility (Paul 435-473, Lahiri 435-473).

The country’s education system has many loopholes and is very restrictive.

The government places the primacy of primary schools above all other institutions.

The Indian government reserves certain areas for people from the lowest income groups.

Because the education system is not of high quality, the reservations do not solve the problem. The hierarchization and subpar education quality have opposite effects on the state-sponsored educational system (Betancourt 2169-2182).

Problem is, the college students of the poor are not treated the same way they were in the government schools.

It is difficult for these students to compete with those of more privileged backgrounds.

Partitioning the education system into various boards allows students to be classified according to their financial circumstances.

There are many state boards with education boards. These boards are not exclusive, but offer a better prospectus.

This divides the students and causes problems in accessing the highest quality education offered remotely (Deshpande 322-225).

It is difficult for students at government schools to compete against students from colleges and universities that are accredited by ICSE, CBSE and ICSE.

The education institutions have been affected by the caste system.

Caste plays a significant role in denying access to educational institutions.

While the primary state education appears universal, it is still managed by the caste system.

The social stratification favors the Dalits and children from lower castes.

These children fall into the vicious circle of poverty.

According to some estimates, half of the world’s poorest children have ties to the Dalit community.

Higher dropout rates are seen in the Dalit community.

It is a boost to the high literacy rate but does not offer economic flexibility.

Inkeles 208-252 explains how reservations have improved the lives of people.

While the number of schools registering the lower casts or Dalits has increased, the students still have to be discerned at these institutions.

The class is hostile to Dalit children and they are forced to sit at the back.

It hinders the learning process.

They are often required to perform tedious tasks in institutes, such as cleaning the bathrooms and classrooms.

These students are often considered untouchable and excluded from social groups.

These types of discrimination have a devastating impact on the mental and physical well-being of children (Borooah 399-414).

This leads to low self-esteem and makes them more likely drop out of school.

If we look at advanced education in India, it is grounded on individuality.

Due to the particularization of this field, there are no efforts to make education universal.

This gateway can be accessed through an entrance test and a merit list (Jeffrey Jeffery and Jeffery 1-38).

The entrance exam score is the threshold for the gateway.

Meritocracy does NOT include the types of funds that the children have or the culture and social capital that has been extended over the years.

India’s education system has a high proportion of the upper class.

It consumes a large portion of the informative space.

A lack of accessibility to primary education and institutionalized discernment results in a low percentage of lower casts and Dalits passing the departure tests.

Jeffery, Jeffery, and Jeffery 963-986 state that reservations are not the answer to social seclusion caused by hierarchization in the education system.

Globalization of India’s education space requires strong policies and hard work.

However, the growth and expansions of exclusive institutions will not always lift people out of poverty.

Indian government must see education quality as a right that students have to end the vicious cycle between poverty and disproportionality.

India’s caste system keeps the lower classes of people under control, which makes them want to use weapons (Desai 245-270 and Kulkarni 245-270).

The country’s caste system had an enormous impact on the educational system.

India has a large population that lives in rural India, where basic education is not available to them.

These schools were once open to all but the most disadvantaged members of the society. However, the rules at the local level have made them more strict.

Rural India had more Dalit residents, and this affected the educational system.

One condition must be considered: these lower caste people didn’t want to study, and their parents wouldn’t allow them to go to school.

As the government school meant for lower caste education did not have teachers or students, the system was weakening over time (Stash and Hannum 354-378).

In the next decades, the infrastructure got worse.

One of the main reasons was poverty in this social class.

Some NGO tried to help these people, but they did not achieve significant results.

To address this problem, various government programs were created such as the mid-day meal and the opening of schools at the grassroots level.

Free education was made available to all members of society in 2009, the year when people were granted the right to learn.

More high-tech schools opened in remote areas.

The argument against the Dalit parents sending their children to school can be made by the fact the educated parents will always make an effort to educate their children, while those without education do not realize the importance of being educated.

A strong education system is a key tool for economic development.

It is an important tool for reducing poverty and inequality.

It has a significant impact on improving the standard and living standards of all the castes.

While the effect of the caste system in India’s education has faded in modern times (Kijima 367-904), it still holds true in the poorer states.

In addition to their unique characteristics and support for the society, Dalits are identified because they have resources.

India’s progress is made possible by the identification of lower castes.

The new government will also need to address the discrimination that the Dalits are currently facing by providing equal and effective education access for youth.

Thorat and Attewell 4141-4145 recommend that the government follow the United Nations procedures and principles to eliminate discrimination.

It can provide a framework to address the problem of the casting system.

This is not the only problem that the Dalits face.

It is hoped that this situation will improve if there is less discrimination in the education system.

This could reduce discrimination, and allow for more people to be able to access the job market.

The government can improve the skill level of the Dalit community.

In the near future, the government of India won’t be able to improve India’s education system.

A prime example is the Reservation. Despite its many years of implementation, people from other castes were still not educated.

In order to educate and train people of the same caste, it will be necessary to have more teachers from lower castes at the ground levels.

Subramanian 818-825 states that rural infrastructure needs to be improved in order for the educational system to thrive.

People who give children a sense that they are untouchable should be subject to more strict regulations.

Many children do learn what their parents do.

To ensure that every Dalit feels safe in sending their children to school, the atrocities against the Dalits must be addressed at the local level.

Because most people are not able to study as much as their parents allowed, it is crucial to increase awareness in the minds of parents.

It is essential to make structural changes at the society level. Otherwise, superficial projects will fail and lead to waste of money.

It is essential that the caste system be abolished in order to save India’s education system.

Although many things have been done in urban areas it is difficult to imagine what the situation will be in rural areas.

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