Posted: June 21st, 2022

EDUC 4175 Educational Psychology

Question:

Critically analyze the effects of learning disabilities over the life span of a human being.

You can support your answer by referring to relevant research findings.

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Answer:

A learning disability is the diagnosis of a human being who has difficulty understanding and using their abilities.

Learning Disorder refers only to learning difficulties in academic areas and does not require diagnosis.

Learning disability is an approved medical evaluation that meets certain norms set by the psychologist and pediatrician.

A group of disabilities called learning disorder occurs when there is insufficient academic and/or communication ability.

Learning disorders are characterized by a variety of learning disabilities that result from insufficient academic and communication skills (Swanson & Harris 2013, 2013).

Dyslexia, Dyscalculia and Dysgraphia are all types of learning disabilities.

Gadde 2013: The main problems with learning disabilities are that they cause brain damage and hinder the body’s ability to access and use information.

One problem with people with learning disabilities is that they slow down the learning process of those who have it.

People with learning disabilities face many difficulties when trying to do a task alone.

Famous personalities like George Washington, Sir Albert Einstein and Sir Albert Einstein were affected by dyslexia. They left behind the disability and were nailed to history. Therefore, learning disability is not an illness but can sometimes be a strength (Kamhi 2013 and Catts 2013).

This essay will examine the impact of learning disabilities on a person’s life.

These are the causes of disability:

Most learning disabilities cannot be explained because there are many causes (Mackelprang & Salsgiver 2016).

But, there are some common causes for learning disabilities.

These are:

Genetic Problem

A family member can be the source of the disability.

An individual may also be affected by disability.

The development disorder may cause the disability.

It can result from premature birth, illness, drinking alcohol, or abnormalities during brain development.

A child’s disability can be increased due to head injuries, toxic exposure, and malnutrition.

The Effects of Disability in Human Life

Persons with learning disabilities have to deal with numerous challenges throughout their entire lives.

Disability can affect not only academic performance but also social appearance.

The perceptions of social status with cohorts are affected by the psychological difference (Hen and Goroshit, 2014).

Not only do learning disabled people have difficulty distinguishing between learning platforms, but they also face stigmatizing labels.

It is extremely difficult to assess the effectiveness of the services for special education due to limitations in the data collection.

Geary (2013) states that the learning difficulties of adolescents can lead to a variety of outcomes. This is due to their poor understanding and functioning.

The reduced expectations of those around them is partly responsible for the low learning outcomes.

According to research, teachers expect less from students with learning disabilities (Emerson McGill and Mansell 2013, respectively).

Study after study shows that students who are more capable of learning have higher self-esteems than those with learning disabilities. It also appears that students with lower learning abilities have less self-esteem, which can lead to many problems later in life.

An individual or adolescent who lacks self-esteem will have problems in every aspect of their lives. Trust in oneself and the ability to take major decisions are important features of a person’s life.

The history of people with learning disabilities is not a bed full of roses, but rather a bed full of thrones.

A problem with students and people who have learning disabilities is the lack of employment or schooling.

Sri Lanka’s amended bill regarding rights of disabled persons states that these individuals will have the right of decision making and employment, as well as training to develop vocational skills (Geary 2013, Sri Lanka).

The psychiatrists and psychologists will identify the learning disabilities. There is also an intelligence test that measures aptitude, presentation and memory as well as thinking ability and social interaction.

The test results will determine if the child has cognitive ability.

If the score is higher, the child has learning disability.

Because of technological advancement, the current test for learning disability involves measuring the child’s IQ (Mirza Nisar and Ikram 2017).

The current research into learning disability is based on a diagnosis process that is also a treatment called the response to intrusion.

Researchers suggest that this process shows the students’ performance and starts the treatment accordingly. This will allow them to meet the criteria for the learning disability without waiting.

Most people with learning disabilities remain silent and undiagnosed in everyday life. This causes them to live longer and suffer from a more severe form of disability (Gaddes, 2013).

The main reason why they end up in hospitals is their invisible and unspoken attitude.

The society and the histories of persons with learning disabilities used to be kept hidden. In the past, it was considered less honorable for families to reveal that a child of a family had a learning disability.

People with learning disabilities are usually viewed in society as people who require support and care. They can’t do most activities without it.

Normal people use people with learning disabilities as examples when telling stories to others about the condition.

Learning disability people want to be normal people.

Present State

People with learning disabilities have been encouraged to be open and share their experiences.

People with learning disabilities have the ability to express themselves and give them the opportunity to reach for the heights that others may not be able to, whether it is academically or at any other level.

A facilitator is needed to assist people with learning disabilities with finding the right words and dyslexia to tell their stories.

It is not a reason for excluding someone from social grounds or cornering them from others. The challenge is to include them and help them to overcome their life barriers with sensibility.

They shouldn’t be considered abnormal as they don’t deserve to be treated this way.

It is also common for families to act rudely towards a child with a learning disability. This is because the disability is not their fault.

Some students treat the disabled child as a joke. Sometimes, the school asks the parents to move the child to a school that is for the differently-abled. The authority believes they are not eligible to gain education in a normal school. Keeping those children will also ruin the school’s reputation.

Self-advocacy is essential for people with learning disabilities. It can help them make sense of their lives and to understand others (Lovett & Sparks 2013, 2013).

Learning Disabilities in Sri Lanka

Nearly 11% suffer from learning disabilities in Sri Lanka and require special guidance.

Only 0.4% of them attend school with fear in their actions and expressions. 96% of these students do not attend school (Reid Lienemann, Hagaman 2013).

In Sri Lanka, there are many cases that have been misdiagnosed. This is due in part to the low level of information and support available for students with learning difficulties.

Many parents in Sri Lanka have a very religious approach to education.

A child with a learning disability is most likely to have a problem with their brain or senses.

Sri Lanka is home to approximately 80% students with reading problems. When the problem goes untreated, self-esteem and education are affected.

Sri Lankan constitution has amended a law which established the rights of persons with learning disabilities.

People with learning disabilities are often treated in a negative light by society. Family members are forbidden from revealing that they have a LD member of their family.

Unfortunately, the country is not able to provide all individuals with learning disabilities with co-operative services.

The foundations or schools that treat children with LD have the option of specialized schools.

There are 10 schools specifically for LD students in Sri Lanka, but there is a problem: the schools lack the necessary teachers to work with the students with LD.

Sri Lanka has yet to compile a proper list of students with disability. This means that Sri Lanka is unable to grant the basic rights to persons with LD.

This information is missing and reduces the options for the LD person. The society does not benefit.

There are not regular schools that offer the education required for students with LD. Also, there is little transparency regarding the acceptance of students with LD into the society (Ceci 2013, 2013).

Parents’ Role

The most important role of parents in the lives the children with learning disabilities has is to be supportive.

The student is not responsible for the learning disability. Neither should they be considered sick. Parents must accept the challenge and treat the child with patience and respect.

They should encourage their child, and treat them as normal. This will help them be social and build confidence in their self-esteem.

Not only is it important to be aware of the needs and concerns of the child with learning disability, but also to see the effects on a family when they are not accepted by society and treated equally with all other families.

The parents of Sri Lanka often feel embarrassed about talking about their child with learning disabilities in school or other places. This gives society more power to treat children with a negative attitude.

It is up to the parents to provide a comfortable environment for their child that will enable them be active members of society.

It is possible that the child’s learning disability is caused by the parents’ negative attitudes towards other people or because of the sins committed by students.

Special schooling is available only until 14 years of age. Parents of such children are afraid that their education will be stopped once they have reached that age.

Role of teachers:

Teachers are skilled and have a lot of experience. They can help the child with LD be social and continue their education by being supportive.

A psychologist is able to support the child more effectively than any other person because they are better at understanding the student’s disability and their mindset than anyone else.

Role of Universities & Foundations

A university professor can help the student understand the child’s condition and provide background.

Learning disability individuals need to feel understood and cooperate in order to thrive. They will leave school and go home if they are uncomfortable in the environment.

Individuals with learning disabilities are constantly afraid because they fear being rejected and being amused by other people.

People around the individuals must work together and bond with them to make their lives successful.

They face many difficulties in their lives, and they seek the help of others to overcome them (Cowan and Powell 2014).

The conclusion is that an individual with learning disability will be able to adapt to the school environment if they are able to find a safe place where they can make friends.

Education is the cornerstone of everyone’s future. Individuals with learning disabilities must be educated to overcome future challenges in their academic lives.

The child with learning difficulties wants to go to the same school as the student with no disability so they can get the same education, and they also want to be treated the same way as other students.

While it is great to see the concern expressed by the Sri Lankan government about the LD children, it is still lacking in efficiency as the country struggles with the learning process.

Routledge.

Fragile X syndrome and diagnostic dilemma in children with learning disabilities:

Sri Lanka Journal of Child Health (45(1)).

Cortiella C. & Horowitz S.H., 2014.

The state of learning disability: Trends, facts and emerging issues.

National Center for Learning Disabilities.

Cowan R. and Powell D., 2014.

The role of domain-general and numerical variables in third-grade arithmetic and mathematical learning disabilities.

Journal of Educational Psychology. 106(1). p.214.

Emerson E., McGill P. and Mansell J. (2013).

Learning disabilities and brain function: A neuropsychological perspective.

Springer Science & Business Media.

Foundations for math learning early on and their relationship to learning disabilities.

Current directions in psychological sciences, 22(1): pp.23-27.

Hen M. and Goroshit M. (2014).

Comparison between students with and not learning disabilities. Academic procrastination. Emotional intelligence. Academic self-efficacy. GPA.

Journal of learning disability, 47(2): pp.116-124.

Kamhi A.G. & Catts H.W.

Language and Reading Disabilities – Pearson New International Edition.

Pearson Higher Ed.

Johns, B., 2014

Learning disabilities and other disabilities: Strategies to succeed.

Nelson Education.

Sparks, R.L.

A quantitative analysis of the performance and identification of gifted students with learning disabilities diagnoses.

Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(4): pp.304-311.

Salsgiver R., 2016.

A diversity-based approach to human service practice in disability.

Oxford University Press.

Meppelder M. Hodes M. Kef S. and Schuengel C.

Parents with intellectual disabilities and parenting stress: The role of resources in buffering behaviour problems.

Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 59(7): pp. 666-677.

Mirza N.M.M. Nisar N. and Ikram Z. 2017, 2017.

Priorities for action: Disability studies in Sri Lanka.

36(20), pages 17421748.

Hagaman J.L. (2013)

Instruction in strategy for students with learning disabilities.

Guilford Publications.

What is the latest definition for specific learning disabilities?

What is sufficient?

Journal of Learning Disabilities, 46(1) pp.26-33.

Seligman M., Darling R.B.

A system approach to childhood disabilities: Ordinary families and special children.

Guilford Publications.

Harris, K.R.

Handbook on learning disabilities.

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