Posted: June 22nd, 2022

Australian Society In Global Context: Ethnicity And Race

Question:

Discuss the Australian Society in Global Context For Ethnicity and Race

Answer:

Australian Society in Global Context

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Shanthi Robertson’s literature focuses on the long-standing production of ethnic and cultural identities in Australia, and how Migrant workers have become the new profiler.

Robertson’s analysis reveals that the migration status is more important than ethnicity and race in indicating differences in status.

His argument is supported in the literature by using the Korean women as a representative of the formation regarding how migrants are reimaging urban life and restructuring it.

The author visited Korean women and gathered information from what he saw and his opinion.

This method is very useful because it provides firsthand information. The author can form an opinion from what he sees.

Interviews with migrants and students are used by the author as a means of collecting information.

Interviews are very beneficial because they provide detailed information regarding personal perceptions and feelings.

The research examines migration and transformation patterns in Australia.

The evidence provided is strong, but not conclusive.

Too much attention is paid to Korean women in the research process and not other groups of immigrants.

Although the evidence is focused on the patterns created by Korean women in the city, there is not enough evidence to show that different immigrants were profiled.

One key assumption in the research was that migration status is an invisible, temporary marker of difference in status. This is more than ethnicity or race.

This is because local workers sometimes interpret student workers’ temporalities and status as being transgressive.

Their activities are a part of the cosmopolitan’s ambiguous mix.

Their late-night services and leisure activities are crucial to the activities that the cosmopolitan does.

Despite their inconsistency, their practices can be disruptive for the cosmopolitan.

These differences clash with local forms of cosmopolitanism.

The article examines the emerging labor mobilizities.

The literature analyzes the complex hierarchies revealed by these immigrants in relation to their identities and labor struggles within cosmopolitan settings.

Robertson seems primarily to focus on time as an important factor in immigration (Robertson 2016, page 42-45).

This article also raises the question of the continuation of boundary making and cosmopolitanism.

We also see profiling based upon immigration status. This is because of the way that the experiences and presence of immigrants in the area have led to a transformation in how citizenship and immigration management are managed.

This has meant that the emphasis is now on temporary and transient forms of migration, rather than the permanent-family migration programs after World War II.

Based on immigration profiling shows that temporary migrants are already outnumbering permanent immigrants.

Certain workers are classified as temporary skilled workers under some visa schemes, such as the 457 visa.

These categories are more associated with students and tourists than laborers.

Martin 2014 p. 87. Temporary migration to the United Nations (IL0) is more connected to the labor market than to permanent migration.

This is contrary to popular belief as visa arrangements are more focused on worker mobility and permanent residence than the labor marketplace.

ILO research has shown that temporary migration participation is higher than permanent setters (Martin, 2014 p.87).

Temporary work migration, which is based on demand, is often referred to as temporary setter. Sponsors primarily nominate temporary positions.

Temporary workers are required to earn a minimum wage. Also, their migration is highly dependent on skill.

Robertson doesn’t see the contributions of these migrants as workers.

There may also be illegal or semi-compliant migrants, which could include people who work outside of their visas and have overstayed.

Another important point made by the author is the production and use of cultural profiling.

In the Melbourne study, which is Australia’s largest Ethni’cities’, we see cultural profiling.

Profiling involves how people live and their temporalities.

Both student-workers as well as tourist-workers can have a huge impact on the social -relationships and re-shaping of the city.

It is important to consider how different types of living interact with each other’s temporalities.

Particular attention is given to how these groups of immigrants differ from those living in urban areas and how they interact with the labor markets.

This book also examines the needs of these immigrants to be able to operate in these labor markets.

Time is considered as a key factor in how migration is defined and managed (as a social experience).

It also examines how student-workers are becoming new subjects in Australian economies (Robertson 2016, P. 42).

We also see profiling on immigrants as the city is where there is an intersection of culture and immigration, which leads to the emergence of new social classes.

These social categories are fundamental to understanding cities’ history and immigration.

In the article, the term “cosmopolitan” refers to the changes occurring.

One assertion in the literature is that urban labor economies are shaped by the temporary legal status and mobility of immigrants.

Similar to permanent settlers, the impact of these migrants is also different.

These impacts vary in terms of how residential are constructed or the cost of housing.

Certain consumption patterns and wants influence how businesses grow.

Due to the political agency of the law and protection for the rights of immigrants, certain urban locations become very important.

Research also suggests that temporary workers are able to transform a given space by forming certain relationships (Khonje 2015, page 128).

Cultural profiling has created barriers for students and tourists to work.

Students visas are required for student workers and tourists.

Language barriers, racism, and competency were some of the other obstacles faced by immigrants in Australia.

Temporariness has a difficult place in the labour market. However, the state places it within a desirable area due to its expandability. (Toro Morn 2013, page 68).

Employers are more likely to hire temporary employees than to retain skilled workers because they can be exploited.

It is widely debated whether temporary workers are allowed to work in Australia under a temporary 457 visa. This is because the workers are at risk of being exploited, and Australia doesn’t have enough domestic workers within the specified time frame.

Accordingly, student and tourist workers are restricted to temporary labor.

These jobs include night-shift or weekend jobs.

Another consequence of such profiling is the disadvantage.

The literature shows that students and tourist workers are often in different temporal zones. They are also segregated from permanent residents.

They are always out of tune with urban life due to their night shifts and study sessions for students.

It is important for migrants to be able to contact their relatives and family overseas.

Due to their differing schedules, the migrants and the locals do different types of work and leisure.

This creates a spatial distance that makes both tourist workers and students feel out of their place.

This is because profiling and isolation can be achieved because people from different social groups are located in different places (Kuptisch, 2014 p.157).

Robertson’s piece is good because it attempts explain a new kind of discrimination due to the rise in temporary immigrant workers here in Australia.

Although the author is able to give a broad overview on the benefits of such workers to the Australian economy, he fails to provide much detail.

Australia is expected to experience a boom in resource production due to increased global demand.

With such demand, major infrastructure projects are expected to be driven.

This type of project will require skilled workers and labor.

Australia is already experiencing a shortage in workers for mining and construction projects.

Ageing workers are making it more difficult to find the right balance between demand and supply.

Similar to the above, the author doesn’t adequately discuss the benefits of such employment to businesses or how it might affect the life experiences for the 457 workers. (Pickering 2014, page 12).

It is not a myth to say that globalization has allowed the free flow of goods, and services in our modern world.

Advanced economies have constant demand for laborers to fill unskilled and skilled jobs.

Temporary skilled labor is accepted because they are highly valued by the states in their labor market.

Temporary unskilled workers are viewed with suspicion as they do low-status jobs.

This unskilled labor raises concerns about loss of jobs, declining wages, and conditions.

Australia is moving towards temporary migration in order to attract skilled workers.

This shift reflects the fact that skilled workers around the world could benefit from temporary migration.

We see that the majority of 457 employees eventually decide to remain in Australia.

This can be part a migrants’ intentional strategy to stay permanently.

Temporary migration offers the advantages of no training fees and those who don’t need the training can return to their original place of origin.

Conclusion

Most literature about temporary skilled labor in Australia has emphasized transition to residency and integration into the labour market.

Peine, 2014 p100. Less attention has been paid to working conditions for migrants upon their arrival.

Complex Australian laws make it difficult to see how employment regulations are mapped into the migrant worker categories.

Complex labor regulations can be a hindrance to complaints from even resident workers.

The different entitlements that are available depending on your employment status can add to the complexity.

Be prepared to thoroughly research and dress issues regarding transition to residence, working conditions, possible profiling, and other related matters.

ILO principles recognize non-citizens’ rights.

The ILO has identified an international gap. National migration governance that is state-based should enforce the ILO’s recommendations. This would leave temporary migrants vulnerable.

It is important that authorities and practices are sensitive to the needs of migrants and their transitional life.

References

Migrant Rights at Work: Law and Precariousness at the Intersection of Immigration and Labour.

The Caribbean Tourism: Trends, Development, Prospects.

The economic impact of immigration: 1st session 2007-08 report: Ordered to be printed 18 March 2008 and published 1 April 2008.

Perspectives from small countries on migration and developmental issues

Global talent.

Labour Studies [u.a.].

The US experience in competing for global talent.

Competing for Global Talent, p.87.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2013. International mobility for highly skilled.

OECD Publishing.

Pickering S. and Ham J., 2014.

Routledge handbook crime and international migration

Migratory as hope: space and time and imagining a better future.

2016 Robertson, S.

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 42 (14), pp. 2272-2288.

M.I.

Global perspective on immigration and migration.

Greenwood Publishing Group.

Yniguez B., Ivy N. Janis N., Earnest N., Alumni US.

University of California Berkeley 1993, p.2020.

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