Posted: June 22nd, 2022

ATS1701 Terrorism And Political Violence: An Introduction

Question:

Objectives

This article will give you an overview of some of the most popular conspiracy theories regarding the September 11 attacks.

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To give an overview of all currents within the 9/11 Truth Movement

To gain an understanding of why certain people doubted 9/11 Commission’s credibility and, subsequently, how that report led to further distrust and legitimacy in the US government.

To critically examine and interrogate some of 9/11 Truth Movement’s major flaws;

To identify the relationships between conspiracy theories (terrorism) and democratic states.

I. Central Arguments

The 9/11 attacks were surrounded by a lot of contradictory information.

This is a significant consequence of the media age. It can also be partly considered as a reason some conspiracy theories exist.

Unfortunately, the US government’s protocols were frequently flawed. Some individuals made crucial errors that only exacerbated damage.

The mistrust around the 9/11 attacks resulted from key events and processes

The 9/11 Commission report, as well as the revelations regarding the war in Iraq, led to mistrust of the US government.

Central Arguments II

Conspiracy communities saw 9/11 attacks within their pre-existing beliefs systems (Barkun’s inventive approach);

Although the 9/11 Truth Movement has criticized the US Government, it’s a nonviolent entity.

The 9/11 conspiracy theories are important because they include superseded and cumulative retrospective delegitimation.

Conspiracy theories can have a negative impact on democratic countries, decreasing trust and legitimacy.

Answer:

Douglas, Sutton, Cichocka (2017) state that a conspiracy theory explains an incident or situation using an alternate version of what happened. These theories are not available to the general public.

Some conspiracy theories are associated with power actions and political motivations that present a conspiracy against the government, or their power allies.

There is both acceptance and criticism of the conspiracy theory, which portrays a clear identification either for or against the conspirators (Van Prooijen Krouwel and Pollet 2015.

But it is important that you remember that conspiracy theories often highlight crucial facts that challenge the main story behind any action.

This essay examines the significance and importance conspiracy theories in terrorist activities.

Important to note is that this essay will be focusing on Al Qaeda and ISIS as terrorist organisations and the political behind terrorist events according to conspiracy theorists.

Based on research by Jolley Meleady (2019), it is clear that the attacks of September 11th changed the trajectory and paradigm of international terrorism.

With more religious and political claims, terrorist organizations tried to reset West’s power balance.

Al-Qaeda with Osama bin Laden as its rightful leader was the key contributor.

The fundamentalist Islamic movements were clearly trying to bring down the civilized West due to its global dominance (Iqtidar 2016.

In order to destabilize the European world and establish an Islamic dominance, a series attacks were planned.

Hagen (2018) has shown that radical Islamic fundamentalist groups stood by their religion war Jihad, calling on Muslim brothers to fight against European domination.

This is a straightforward story that everyone understands.

But it is impossible to deny that terrorist acts in Europe are the result of war waged in name of religion.

There is also the influence of the West’s propaganda that justifies the west’s decision to end the terror occupation in the Middle East. (Mashuri, Zaduqisti 2015.

Because of this, terrorism can be described as a story that has two ends. One refers to the demand for justice and justice for Muslims and another to the Western superpowers’ political justice.

This is because conspiracy theory plays a much more alarming role than a straight-forward depiction terrorist events.

It is important to note that conspiracy and political maneuverings played a key role in the establishment a solid path for terrorist practice.

Understanding the role of a political organisation and its purpose in international terrorist acts is crucial (Wilson 2017).

Al-Qaeda, ISIS and other terrorist organizations have been doing terrorism for years. They are also responsible for creating unneeded bloodshed and fear around the world.

However, there are some important aspects that are crucial to understanding the political activities state powers.

Al-Qaeda and ISIS have committed two major acts that warrant further investigation. The conspiracy theorists provide important information about the terrorist acts and the culprit groups.

Historisch, it is clear that the creation of terrorism was the brainchild of the US. In particular, the US mujahidin troops were made to the forefront of fighting against Soviet Russia (Orr und Husting 2018).

These militant Afghan tribes were supported by the US, who provided ammunition and arms.

The US’s interference in Middle East politics led to the opposite.

There were always many interests that the US held over oil politics in the Middle East.

After a long time, the US intent to overthrow the balance of power in the Middle East created a power vacuum. This was almost revealed in the year 2000 (Coco V2015).

Conspiracy theory is a different concept that can uncover the truth behind the political power’s deliberate concealment.

London’s 2005 terrorist attack raised many questions about British government’s role in the event.

The London Attack of 7/7 July 2005 was commonly referred to as the 7/7 terrorist attack that took place in London’s public transportation system.

In the terrorist attack, more than 50 people died and 700 were hurt (Giordano 2016 and Lindstrom 2016).

Later, four suicide bombers were identified as Mohammad Sidique Khan (Shehzad Tanneer), Germaine Lindseer, Hasib Hussain and Germaine Lindsay.

Both the first-hand report and subsequent investigations confirmed that the attackers were linked to Al-Qaeda.

It is important that we note that there were many anomalies in the police reports that make it difficult to determine the true role of Al-Qaeda.

The conspiracy theory proposes a new theory to explain the attack, holding the British government accountable for all the bloodshed and mayhem.

Some important claims are made by conspiracy theorists, but the British government has not answered those questions.

One example is that conspiracy theorists identified an anomaly in four suicide bombers’ travel route.

According to the report, four men had traveled on the 7.40 morning train from Luton towards Central London.

But, the 7:40 train was canceled on that day (Oswald 2016).

On the same day, there was a political controversy.

Conspiracy theoryrs linked the event to a wider consensus, where it would condemn Muslims in the UK. They also pushed for the government’s invasion of the Middle East, particularly in Iraq.

It was managed by Tony Blaire, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and also received support from the US government (Lee 2017).

In order to understand the terrorist intentions of the four suicide bombers, conspiracy theorists ran psychological and intent tests.

There was no evidence that these four men carried out the plan.

One of the most important stances into the incident was that no terrorist organisation claimed responsibility on the day of the attack, which is quite remarkable and unimaginable in the history of terrorism and Al-Qaeda operations. (Van Prooijen 2017).

Many conspiracy theorists believe it was a government-sponsored attack that was orchestrated by the United States and British secret services.

Another important event to be examined is when ISIS was condemned to play a large part in the terrorist attacks.

The terrorist attack took place in Paris on November 15, 2015. More than 100 people were killed and many others were seriously injured.

It is considered to have been the most serious terrorist attack in Paris’s history. Islamic State of Iraq and Levant of ISIS claimed responsibility for the attacks, claiming that they were a retaliation against French airstrikes in Syria and Iraq. (Kreis 2015).

It was declared by the government to be an act war, and France would adopt a sufficient stance to stop terrorist activities.

According to an investigation report, the attack was orchestrated in Syria and carried out by a terrorist group in Belgium.

This investigation report reveals two important aspects of the attacks.

ISIS claims to be the mastermind behind the attacks and they have a reason to retaliate for the French occupation in Iraq and Syria (Lantian et al.

In fact, the government also claimed they had found the link to a terrorist cell in Belgium.

This view suggested that it was a terrorist threat from ISIS and other terrorist organisations.

The conspiracy theorists see it as a crucial aspect to identify the role of the government in the terrorist attack.

Initial hunts for terrorists were characterized by massive government intervention. However, ISIL/ISIS also claimed responsibility for the terrorist attack.

It is a very naive interpretation of ISIL’s attack and timing.

Colas 2017 argued that ISIL claimed responsibility for this attack.

A conspiracy theory, which questioned the involvement in the attack by a Syrian terrorist, was added to suspicion.

The government presented the passports of terrorists that were half-burned and claimed that an attacker from Syria was responsible for the attack.

The conspiracy theorists made a rational argument, arguing that it was impossible for the government to locate the passport of the terrorists who had blown themselves to death.

The conspiracy theory that led to the involvement of the French government in this matter is also a result.

Schulzke 2018, which argued that France was trying to get into the war on Syria and Iraq, and that the government was justified in intervening in the area.

It was therefore a major advantage for the French government that Muslims were negatively portrayed in order to allow them to be politically and militarily involved in the conflict between Syria and Iraq.

Understanding the events and activities of these terrorist organisations and their resemblance to the current perception of terrorist organisations worldwide is essential.

Although conspiracy theory doesn’t intend to change the perception of terrorism, it does add the fact that some political power are involved in nefarious acts that in some way indicate terrorist organizations.

It should be noted that the current state in terror is not caused by one organization or region. However, the host country politics also show enough involvement of political organisations in terrorism.

To understand the global politics and the underlying causes of terrorist activity, Conspiracy theory can be a very important tool.

Galliford and Furnham (2017 research) have shown that conspiracy theories serve to create a parallel view of events so that various aspects can be discussed.

Coco (2015) argued that conspiracy theory is a highly based argument on beliefs and assumption.

Coco (2015) argued that conspiracy theories cannot be used to analyze the events objectively.

Despite all of the facts, it is evident that the government does not respond to conspiracy theories.

It is evident that there were conspiracies behind the terrorist events. They need to be examined properly.

The discussion above aims to illustrate the relevance of conspiracy theories against the background of understanding terrorist acts.

It is important to understand the motives of terrorist organisations and the nature their activities. This will help us get a clear picture of who was responsible for these terrorist organisations.

To create an alternate view of the events and the relationship it has with the government, conspiracy theories can be used to present a variety of important aspects.

The discussion reveals the effectiveness of conspiracy theory in understanding international terrorism.

Conspiracy theories help to present a new picture that is not based on assumptions and only evidence.

It can be seen that conspiracy theories play a pivotal role in understanding terrorist attacks and terrorism.

Reference

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What does Dabiq do for you?

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The psychology of conspiracy theories.

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Galliford (N.) and Furnham (A.), 2017.

Individual differences in beliefs and factors that influence medical and political conspiracy theories.

Scandinavian journal psychology, 58(5). pp. 422-428.

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London terror attacks of 2005: A study on changes in psychological wellbeing (2003-07)-A UK Panel Study.

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Exposure to intergroup conspiracy theories encourages prejudice that spreads across all groups.

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