Posted: June 22nd, 2022

A10826 Psychology

Question:

These psychological needs include autonomy, competence, as well as relatedness.

Your assignment should define your psychological needs.

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Next, discuss ways you can help your child fulfill their autonomy needs.

Discuss how you can meet your competency needs at work.

Answer:

The proactive nature of human beings is inherent in their ability to engage with their social and psychological environments, and eventually absorb valuable and cultural practices.

The human nature of curiosity is what makes it so that the majority of people are interested in responding to their values.

This report will examine the psychological needs, defining their importance and implications. The focus of this report is on childhood autonomy as well as workplace competency.

To highlight the autonomy and competence of individuals, self-determination theory is one of the most important theories.

This report will show how to easily fulfill the autonomy needs of children and then achieve competency in the workplace.

In this report, we will examine the factors that drive intrinsic motivation and the behavior that enables individuals to achieve their autonomy and competence needs.

2.0 Psychological Needs

Liu and Han (2013) state that psychological needs are a typical situation in which an individual experiences the need for something.

Albert Maslow Theory of Motivation can support this view.

Ryan and Deci (2014) argued that psychological needs are defined by three pillars: competence, autonomy, or relatedness.

It can be concluded that psychological needs include basic needs that are essential to one’s sense of self-worth and the basis for which other activities can be completed.

To be able to properly define psychological needs, it is important to explain self-determination theory.

This theory will reveal the motivational factors that are both internal and external.

A person’s motivation source is valid and satisfaction leads to greater competency.

This is how self-determination theory aids in understanding the type and motivation that drives an individual’s activities.

2.1 Autonomy

Brown and Ryan (2015) claim that an individual’s intrinsic autonomy can only be achieved if there is no external guidance or force.

The individual should be able to motivate themselves to take action on the interests.

You can refer to behavioral experience as volitional, reflective or self-endorsed.

Individuals must be willing to dedicate time to the tasks they are expected to perform in order for them become autonomous.

Olafsen, et al. (2015) argued that autonomy is subject to loss over time and that motivation can be gained by extrinsic factors like rewards and incentives.

This includes external regulation styles such as identified regulation (or introjected regulation), integrated regulation (or integrated regulation).

2.2 Competence

Gagne and Deci (2014) claim that competency is achieved only after successful autonomy accomplishment. Competence among individuals can only occur after they have willingly acquired knowledge of competitive aspects.

The challenge of intrinsic motivation-based competence is greater when people willingly contribute to their learning and knowledge.

Nie et.al. (2015) found that people often lose their motivation and are less active. This is because competition is created through external motivators such as rewards or awards for success.

These factors are able to restore motivation and maintain the learning and developing process by providing a competitive environment.

2.3 Relationship

Csikszentmihalyi (2014) stated that the satisfaction of having a close relationship with someone helps facilitate internalization.

When an individual attempts to establish a sense of belonging with a particular person, and receives the expected response, it’s likely that their intrinsic motivation is acting within them.

This is because they are motivated and proactive only when they receive positive feedback from someone they like.

This type of need, when fulfilled, can lead to motivation.

Olafsen, et al. (2015) noted that those with such closeness are more inclined to internalization, and those who are ignored go beyond the realm of internalization.

These individuals can respond to contingencies and external control.

3.0 Fulfillment Of Child Autonomy and Needs

People often feel they have enough control over their lives and themselves.

As children are small and inept, it is impossible to expect them to be completely independent.

McEown (2014) and others (2014) stated that children in their second stage of psychological growth, shortly after one year of age, should overcome the conflict between autonomy and shame.

Children who don’t develop their autonomy power are likely to remain dependent on adults.

Children with low autonomy can be subject to high levels of influence from their peers.

It is possible for children to feel hostility towards adults who give them very little freedom.

Taylor et. al. (2014) define child autonomy as the delegating of some responsibilities to the kids towards their work.

Children are able to be more independent when they have this autonomy.

The children feel proud of their achievements, which in turn boosts their self-esteem.

Here are some ways that children can satisfy their autonomy needs.

3.1 Trust On Children

Autonomy goes beyond the ability to raise children.

It is the confidence that children have in their ability to accomplish certain tasks on their own.

Ford and Cerasoli (2014) highlighted that autonomy is the capacity of children to think and act for themselves.

In addition, autonomy can increase self-esteem in children and enrich their inner lives by increasing their confidence.

To encourage autonomy, parents must have enough trust in their children.

Jang and colleagues (2016) suggested that parents should also be proud about their children’s achievements.

The parents should allow their children to live their lives as they choose.

3.2 Children Can Make Their Own Routine

Children will feel more confident when they are given certain responsibilities.

Furthermore, children will feel more confident in being able to control their own work.

Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2014) suggest that parents let their children create their own routines to complete their tasks.

Children may find it motivating to create their own routines.

Parents should assign the child a little task each morning, such as getting dressed, brushing teeth, and making beds.

If the child forgets, parents should remind him/her.

But, parents should allow their children the freedom to do their own work.

Encouragement 3.3

Taylor et. al. (2014) found that children can become fully autonomous if they receive enough encouragement from their parents to complete their own work.

The parents should also try to be supportive and encourage their children to think for themselves rather than do everything for them.

Brown and Ryan (2015) suggested that parents should encourage self-confidence in children.

They must help children understand that they are capable and capable of accomplishing their tasks without any assistance from others.

The parents should still be there to encourage the children at each step of their activity.

3.4 Participation in the Household Core

The participation in the household core is a training session that will help the children learn how to manage and control their own work.

Chemolli and Gagne (2014) will also allow them to participate in activities related their home.

Participation in such activities will be an intrinsic motivation for children to do certain activities and gain some experience.

This will help children to develop their autonomy.

Parents can organize their houses so that children can help in the household core.

3.5 Enough freedom and relaxation

Silva et.al. (2014) state that children should have the freedom to enjoy their work and explore new ideas.

The parents must allow their children sufficient freedom and relaxation in order to be able to do their job as they wish.

Parents should not place time limits on children.

The parents shouldn’t be concerned about spillages and messes caused by the children’s work.

The parents should remain calm and let the children enjoy more of their own work.

The children will be more independent if they can explore new ideas and learn from their own work.

3.6 Challenging and Giving Task

Jiang et. al. (2016) found that children can improve their ability to face complex situations by challenging them at regular intervals.

It is important for parents to give children some challenging tasks.

It will motivate the children to explore new ways of tackling the difficult areas.

Ryan (2016) and Deci (2016) said that parents should be proud and grateful for their children’s achievements and their innovative approaches to completing challenging tasks.

The children will develop their independence and learn how to deal with real life challenges.

3.7 Appreciating new ideas

Ryan (2014) and Deci (2014) say that appreciation from parents can serve as an extrinsic motivation to regulate the difficulties associated with the task.

The parents should also encourage children to think outside the box.

The parent should not stop their children from using their creativity. Instead, the parents should encourage them to use their inventive ideas in order to accomplish the tasks.

Children will be more open to taking on difficult tasks and coming up with innovative solutions.

The children will be able to work independently and become more autonomous.

3.8 Understanding Emotional Triggers

McEown (2014) states that children are motivated by emotional triggers, which in turn encourage them to take control of their work.

The parents must also understand their children’s interests.

These interesting areas will be the emotional triggers for children.

The parents should give their children tasks based upon their emotional triggers.

It will encourage them to take responsibility for their own work.

Parents can then satisfy their children’s autonomy requirements.

4.0 Satisfaction of Competency Needs at Work

Csikszentmihalyi (2013) stated that workplace autonomy can lead to satisfaction and competence.

The reason is that once employees feel motivated to perform, either intrinsically or externally, they are able to demonstrate their competence in a competitive environment.

Leeet and colleagues (2015) disagreed, stating that employees may be reluctant to face off against others because of dissatisfaction.

While employees might be motivated to work they may become less self-reliant.

A healthy workplace can be hampered in this situation.

Gatling et al. (2016) argued that a healthy workplace encourages competition among employees. This ultimately leads to a surge in quarterly productivity.

High levels of productivity are only possible when employees feel satisfied with their competency needs. Many scholars have discussed how to satisfy these competency needs, and whether they can be met by intrinsic or extrinsic motivational factors.

4.1 Intrinsic Motivational Factors

4.1.1 Controlling Behavior

Ryan (2015) and Brown (2015) report that many employees are controlled by organizations through multiple workplace policies and rules in order to maintain a uniform flow of work.

This is important for ensuring an impartial flow of outcomes from employees.

Gatling et. al. (2016) asserted that employees who are subjected to control and work in specific ways can have their autonomy violated.

Their sense of freedom and satisfaction eventually gets compromised.

Employees will be more satisfied if they have the freedom to choose how to behave.

4.1.2 Evaluation Pressure

Many organizations attempt to determine the competency of their employees by using multiple tests.

Trepanier et. al. (2013) pointed out that tests can help to determine the level and differences in competency among employees.

Spence and Deci (2013) stated that employees should not be tested directly. This can lead to a decrease in employee satisfaction and a reduction in work productivity.

The flip side is that employees will be more motivated if they have the chance to help other people or colleagues. They also feel more responsible for their own guidance and learning.

Employees are intrinsically motivated, and their satisfaction is higher.

4.2 Extrinsic Motivation factors

4.2.1. External Regulation

Massenberg and colleagues (2015) argue that inactive or non-performing employees must be motivated externally. This could be done through a reward system.

Evans and Kersh (2017, on the other hand) stated that some employees will not be motivated even if the company has established reward policies.

External regulation must also provide extrinsic motivation so that employees are motivated to perform and avoid punishment.

A balanced satisfaction creates a sense of nonbiasness among employees, and rewards as well as punishment avoidance factors.

From these viewpoints, it is possible to satisfy competency needs at work through recognition and rewards.

This creates a sense that employees are competing for the same thing. They will outperform each other in order to get rewarded.

Being rewarded creates a sense achievement and restores satisfaction.

4.2.2 Introjected regulation

Vanthournout (2014) claims that employees often act in self-aggrandizement or self-deprecation.

This means that employees work to feel proud or not guilty of their non-performance.

Employers must increase their self-esteem to make them feel proud of what they do.

This is only possible by separating employees’ performing behavior and assigning them roles that best suit their needs.

This will lead to a feeling of satisfaction and achievement.

Looking at the perspective of Gerhart & Fang (2015), we can see that introjected regulation is mostly driven by ego involvement. If employees are assigned externally to some roles beyond their daily tasks, they feel proud that they have received more responsibility.

Satisfaction will lead to better performance.

4.2.3 Identified & Integrated Regulation

The higher autonomy is, in the words of Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi (2014). However, certain behaviors can be ratified since they are valuable and essential to an individual.

These behaviors are thought to be examples of identified regulation.

Gerhart and Fang (2015), on the other hand, highlighted the fact that extrinsic motivation is best delivered by integrated regulation. This allows employees to justify and synthesize themselves.

It can be said that employees can find satisfaction by being observant of their behavior.

Management should identify and separate the performance levels, behaviors, activities, interests and working patterns of each employee.

The management should then provide employees with tasks that they are interested in.

Managers must ensure that employees who are identified have the right roles to achieve business objectives.

This can be called integrated regulation through identified regulation when both parties, including employers and employees, are able understand the roles being assigned.

The satisfaction of employees is increased when they feel that their roles are being assigned to them.

According to Liu and Han (2013), the most effective extrinsic motivator that makes employees happy and improves their competency is to allow employees’ requests.

Vanthournout (2014) and others pointed out that employees have more competency when they are allowed to ask for what they want.

Some of the allowances, such as flexible working hours, comfortable work environment, work from a preferred location, medical allowance, adjustable leave policy, and medical allowance, help to increase employee satisfaction.

Employees are able increase their ability to be more competent by being happy. They can perform better and exceed what was expected or proposed.

Managers will be able to easily identify those employees who are willing to negotiate for additional allowances despite their poor performance.

Employees with low self-esteem are more likely to accept no allowances. This justifies their sense of competence and the fact that they continue performing better.

As a summary, satisfying one’s psychological needs can help an individual reach his full potential.

Three aspects of psychological needs have been identified: autonomy, competence, as well as relatedness.

Each of these three components can either be accomplished by intrinsic motivation or external motivation.

If an individual fails to act in accordance to their self-autonomy then external motivation will boost the behavior. However, active self autonomy can be negatively affected when there is power of rules and restrictions.

According to research, autonomy is the key factor in fostering competency between a child or employee.

Restrictions, filtration, rules, and regulations can hinder the behavior of both the child and employee.

However, the child autonomy needs can be met by trust, encouragement, freedom and appreciation.

External regulation, introjected regulation or identified regulation can all be used to meet workplace competency needs.

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