BS6016 Clinical Applied Physiology

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Table of Contents

In the following references Miller et al., 2005 gives information on normal values and procedures to test lung function.

The flow volume loop is dynamic measurement of lung function. It provides information about both the inspiratory as well as expiratory functions of the lungs.

BHT varies among individuals depending on factors like lung size, effort, gender, and ethnicity.

2.To study the effect of lung volume on the time taken to hold breath.



The article being reviewed is entitled “Reference Values of Spirometry for Finish Adults”, with authors based at Helsinki University Central Hospital.

It was co-authored by authors from several Helsinki institutions.

The article appears in the journal Clinical physiology Functional Imaging 36, pages 346-358 (Kainu 2015).

Body of the Article

The paper discusses the use of spirometry to assess lung function.

It is important to have current reference values available for the purpose of diagnosing.

According to background information, the paper describes that reference values are typically estimated and randomly selected from healthy populations.

According to the paper, the reference values in Finland were determined from a late 1970s cohort analysis of patients.

Further illustrations are provided from countries that have used these value for assessments.

The countries of Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, Poland and Switzerland were all assessed.

This background information provides evidence that these countries are rich in reference values and can be used to compare the practices of different countries.

While the research used references from the past include 1992 as the oldest and 2013 as the most recent, proper referencing was used to complete the study.

The study objectives and goals were to create new clinical references values for diagnosis in Finland for native Finns.

The study also examined the differences in reference values between the current data and those used in Europe and global 2012 references.

This study used questionnaires and experimental designs to measure spirometry performance.

The study concluded by providing current reference values for native Finns in a wide age range. GLI2012, which was previously used as an assessment reference, was not suitable for clinical purposes. This is due to the underestimation their lung volumes.

A variety of methods were used to analyze the results.

The study results were supported with rich findings from the studies, as well as various data analysis aspects.

Because it analyzes results in multiple perspectives, the use of graphic presentations was effective.

The experimental design was designed to evaluate the non-smokers’ exact values.

This supported the data needed for conclusion.

The design sought to describe the variation in the values of the spirometry used for hypothesis testing of the reference values that would be used in the Elderly Finnish reference value hypothesis.

The experiment was successful in predicting the outcome using the change conditions (dependent variable s, independent variables) to determine the best outcome.

Although the validity, reliability, and replicabilty of the tools and methods were discussed in this article, they were not clear.

The hypothesis method assessment was not used in this study. Instead, the aims and objectives were used. This indicates that the research questions were being asked.

This can impact the accuracy of research results and the quality of data.

R statistical tool was used for analysis. It is reliable and can be used for data processing.

It is possible to produce reliable results that are relevant for the focus of the study if they are well coded.

Maintaining quality standards in spirometry research is crucial. This requires careful attention to following the guidelines. (Miler, et al. 2005).

In large studies, it is important to ensure that each measurement taken is accurate. Over-sight and feedback to data control centres are essential for improving quality control.

The findings of this study were presented in a scientific manner with crucial details about proper use of scientific terms. This includes the basic terms used by clinical physiology in spirometry analysis.


The outline and writing of the study is appropriate for scientific research as it employs reliable statistical tools and sampling techniques. Furthermore, the presentation of data finding and the conclusion allow the research to have solid scientific evidence and results that are supported by the use of the right methodology and analysis.


Kainu A. Timonen K.L. Toikka J. Pitkaniemi J.T. Lindqvist A. Vanninen E. Lansimies E. Sovijarvi A.R.A. 2015

Reference values of spirometry to Finnish adults.

Functional imaging and clinical biology.

Standardization of spirometry.

Eur Respir J 2005.26(2):319-338.

Quality control of spirometry in large epidemiologic research studies: We incorporate “breathing” quality into our work.

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