You can select any topic that is narrowly related to World War II and its causes and effects in European history.
You must ensure that the sources you use are not Wikipedia and that they are scholarly.
The thesis must be relevant and pertinent to the argument. It should also demonstrate an accurate understanding of the question.
It should go beyond merely reiterating the question.
When possible, the argument section should contain pertinent details from coursework and readings outside of class.
Your instructor should approve your submission.
It must contain historical evidence supporting the thesis as well as the main claims of the argument.
It should be clear and concise.
The summary should briefly summarize the thesis and the main arguments.
It should also display insight and understanding in relation to the question(s).
Tuskegee airmen were among the first to fly in the United States Army Air Corps, which is a part of the United States Air Force.
They flew more than 15,000 sorties between North America, Europe and the United States during the Second World War.
There were many record-setting pilots in the 1920s that captured the attention of the nation. They inspired many young people to become pilots.
Unfortunately, young African Americans who wanted pilot careers were confronted with many obstacles.
Many of these obstacles were caused by widespread racism, which held that black people could never learn to operate or fly an aircraft.
Europe was on the brink in 1938 and there was a need to increase training of civilian pilots throughout the U.S.
That was when racial discrimination was the rage in the United States Armed Forces, and throughout the country.
In the Southern part of the country, most military establishments believed that black soldiers were inferior and would not perform well in combat.
Chicago Defender and other black newspapers fought for black rights. Civil rights groups such as the NAACP also argued that black people should be included.
In September 1940, the U.S. president Roosevelt authorized the ACC to train black pilots. The training ground was to be held at Tuskegee. There were students from all walks of the country.
A total of 14,000 instructors and navigators, as well instructors, instructors and bombardiers, were part of the training programs.
Despite the struggles of the Tuskegee pilots during training, they still faced racism and prejudice on the battlefield.
The World in Hard Times
Black Americans were faced with difficult times that were made worse by racism and prejudice.
American citizens lived through many difficult years in their thirties.
Living standards were very low, making it extremely difficult and psychologically damaging for Americans to survive.
It was more difficult for the black population to survive, as they were being treated differently and often faced with racism even in the most positive parts of their lives.
They had to find survival strategies. These included being resilient and managing the hardships.
This was how blacks were forced to fight for their rights to inclusion in order to be allowed into the army.
It was hard for white people to see them as less capable of handling war equipment.
Despite these difficulties, the Negro people and women persevered and got the job done.
Racism and Segregation
African Americans had to overcome racism and segregation in order to become great pilots.
Dryden was a prominent member of the group of seven hundred Black pilots who trained in Alabama.3 His book A-Train, Memories of a Tuskegee Airmen, details his struggles and the hardships that black men went through.
Dryden was also the commander of the 332nd Fighter group and the 477th Composite. He said that the entire team relied on one phone for communication.
The Tuskegee airmen trained at an isolated training center.
The only other trainees were black people.
Racism was the order, with black people being denied entry to the army and being separated on one ground.
The Negro woman was never considered serious and they had the to fight for what they were entitled to and prove they were equally worthy.
African Americans are resilient and able to rebuild their lives and relationships despite a wave of racism well-rooted in American history.
Victor Turner’s concept about racism is used to illustrate and show how racism identity and racism are constructed within the American history.
The idea is based on the procession structure of social activities, where the Hawaii people are used to illustrate.
Hawaii’s residents did not have any contact with the African Americans on the mainland.
The Hawaiians were subject to racial prejudice and were therefore able to relate to the black Americans.
African American airmen were treated with contempt even though they were compelled to serve their country.
Alexander was among the 32 airmen of the 332nd who gave their lives to the promise that freedom would be returned home.
He describes how they were treated during training and in battle with disrespect.
Alexander’s book describes his experience as a prisoner in war, and also the experiences of other black men who were kept prisoner.
Alexander made sketches of combat aircraft to keep his mind sharp and allow time to pass.
They were held captive by the German who considered the black army a dangerous weapon.7 The United States, the country they had gone to defend, did not come to their aid and did not care about the hardships they went through as prisoners.
Alexander experienced racism as a young boy as he walked to school through the Jewish territories.
This meant that he needed to use stones and fight his way.
Racial prejudice and racism against African American airmen led to inequality and unfair treatment.
Despite Dryden’s dedication and hard work, the white rulers treated Dryden as trash.
Dryden was disqualified from the Army Air Corps of the United States due to very unfair reasons.
Dryden had flown with and led four P-39 Air cobras through Walterboro Army Airbase in a low manner.
Witnesses of white soldiers treated black people with disrespect and lowered their standards to the point where he provided incorrect information.
The pilots were flying with a low attitude, and they were approximately seventy metres from the watchtower.
According to the witness, he was able to see them fly past the tower as he looked down.
Buzzing was a criminal offense that resulted in the crash of several aircrafts, which caused injuries and the death of the military pilot as well as some civilians.
The use of racial discrimination was used against black men to prevent them from being employed in the airforce.
In the National Defense Plan, there was a review on the Army Air Corps and the issue of black employment.
Hastie, the judge, said that it was illegal to use racial discrimination to employ the Negros in Air Corps.
Because the black people were limited and weak, he considered them a wasteful use of American resources.
He said that resources shouldn’t be wasted on them and that they would prefer to focus on other military bases that had white personnel.
The unjust treatment continued even after the war in Europe ended.
After the war ended, the 332nd’s men returned home to segregated reception areas and to stations that were geographically separated.
The Negros were not welcomed back home by New York’s ticker-tape parades like other white soldiers.
The Tuskegee Airmen weren’t provided with housing, unlike other military bases.
Because the base was so dangerous during World War II, they had to search for houses near their families.
Dryden shares his story about how he was forced to live in a one-bedroom apartment that was too expensive for him, even though he shared the bathroom and kitchen.
Tuskegee men were forced to share any housing available, even if it was half decent.
They had to be on a tight schedule throughout training. There was no time for them to take breaks or have other staff.
Even denied the right to have a club because the one in Lufberry hall was shut down for petty reasons.
Unfair Treatment and Inequality
African American pilots were discriminated against and fired.
In other cases, minor mistakes could have led to the termination or dismissal.
In one instance, the Tuskegee Airmen lost the CO for the Third Fighter Command in the United States.
Before the United States congressional board, he testified that he had not been aggressive enough.
According to the Congressional board, the officer had not been aggressive enough in his work since he had won only one battle in which he was able to bring down an opponent’s plane in less than two months.
These were not significant achievements. They expected black people would achieve extraordinary feats.
Because there was no crime committed, these small mistakes shouldn’t have resulted in dismissal.
The lives of the Tuskegee Airmen were difficult from the moment they were enlisted to the day that they left for the battle.
They are subject to racism from the American government, who saw them as less competent and less intelligent than the citizens.
They endure harsh training conditions, including poor housing and no freedom.
Their training hours are long, which shows that they are considered slaves on the ground.
For example, on the battlefield, after completing one mission, the 332nd Flight is sent to Italy and not home.
These are just a few examples of the challenges faced by Tuskegee Airmen. They work long hours and have no rest.
They are not permitted to visit their families and their communication is restricted.
Instead of being honored as war heroes after winning a battle the Tuskegee airmen aren’t appreciated.
Thus, the Tuskegee Airmen’s life was filled with slavery, many struggles, and many trials.
“Commemoration and Race and World War II”: History and Civil Rights at Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site.
Carlson H. Red Tail Captured and Red Tail Free: Memoirs by a Tuskegee Airman/POW.
Fordham University Press 2005, New York City.
Bailey, Beth and David Farber.
“The Double-V’ Campaign in World War II Hawaii : African Americans Racial Ideology & Federal Power,” Journal of Social History. Vol.
Black, Helen K., & William H. Thompson. A War within a War. A World War II Buffalo Soldier’s Story,” The Journal of Men’s Studies. vol.
Dryden and Benjamin O. Davis, Charles W.
A-Train: Memoirs from a Tuskegee Airman.
University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Ala., 2002.
The Tuskegee airmen: The men who changed a nation
Hunter, Andrea G., Alethea Rollins.
“We made History: Collective Memory and the Legacy of the Tuskegee Airmen.”
Journal of Social Issues 71: no.
Red Tail Captured, Red Tail free: Memories of a Tuskegee Airman
Freedom Flyers: Tuskegee Airmen in World War II.
New York: Oxford University Press. 2010.
Norris, Laureen. “The Battle for Civil Rights in War for Peace? African-Americans in World War II,” Perspectives in History. Vol. XI. (1996) p. 47-52.
“Patriotism Crosses The Color Line: African Americans in World War II.”
The Guilder Lehrman Institute of American History.