Disseminate about the Gender Roles Biologically Based Socio-Constructed.
This journal was inspired in part by the disparities between men and women’s performance in mathematics tests.
Both teachers and students have noticed that math is easier for males than it is for females.
Both boys and girls must be proficient in math to improve the class’s average score.
Guiso and colleagues.
Guiso et al. wrote this article to try and change cultural beliefs and stereotypes that can lead to differences in performance in maths between the genders.
It is claimed that the poor performance of maths has nothing do with biology and that it has everything do with culture, which socializes the girls to believe that maths should be for men.
However, the article supports the idea that gender is biologically determined.
However, the article states that gender roles like performance in mathematics are an issue culture and that if the topic is emphasized, it will result in the girl child performing well in this subject.
The author acknowledges that maths is a difficult task and that society should educate the boy child.
This article is therefore relevant to the topic of “Gender roles that are biologically determined”
This journal discusses the impact of gender stereotypes on participation in sports events.
Hardin, Greer and other researchers conducted various researches to find the main reasons that women were not involved in weightlifting as much as the men.
According to the journal, stereotyping and cultural limitations were the main causes of the disparities in men and women participating in weight lifting.
The journal authors dispute the idea that gender roles can be biologically determined.
The journal’s arguments are intended to refute the scientific belief that women are best suited for light tasks, while men should be capable of lifting heavy objects like weightlifting.
The journal argues that women should be encouraged and supported to take part in sport through legislation.
This journal has a relevant argument that is pertinent to the subject of discussion. The journal argues that women should encourage and socialize themselves to love and participate in sport.
Men are naturally wired to perform heavy jobs.
Levant and Richmond looked at many areas in their search to find out the roles of men in society.
Both roles revealed that men were more involved than their female counterparts.
According to the journal, men are meant for tough tasks like those mentioned in literature reviews (e.g. fishing or the military).
These tasks require a lot of energy.
Because men are biologically destined for heavy tasks, this sector is a good fit for them. This journal is also relevant.
Nightingale is an environmentalist. His research examines gender roles and the effects of the environment on men and woman’s work.
Nightingale argues that gender is a biologically-based trait.
He acknowledges that men and women’s roles in the environment are determined primarily by their gender.
But he recognizes the importance of society in influencing men’s and woman’s decisions to participate in environmental preservation activities.
According to him, society should help men and women learn to respect their biological roles in order to protect the environment.
As an example, he believes that women should be at the forefront of cleaning the environment to care for it.
This article is pertinent to the discussion about “Gender roles that are biologically based, not socially construed”
O’Neil, in his search to determine the different conflicts in the definitions of gender and roles, reviewed 232 empirical research by different researchers in the field of gender and roles.
This article examines gender roles and begins by introducing the conflicting definitions that have been made in this area over the past 25 year.
The article presents a range of definitions and explanations by different scholars, with some supporting the assertion that gender roles can be biologically determined while others opposing it.
The article presents, among others, the arguments of Sigmund Frud, who asserts that gender roles have been biologically determined.
O’Neil presents similar arguments from scholars who believe that gender roles can be socially construed.
O’Neil states that gender roles are socially and gender-based after reviewing the articles.
O’Neil asserts that society cannot decide the gender of an person.
But, the socialization agents that make up the society can influence the roles an individual takes on.
The article has relevance to the subject of discussion as it provides various literature reviews and experiments that have been conducted by scholars to prove that gender roles can be biologically determined.
Gender roles refers to the norms that determine the behaviour of an individual. They make it acceptable for them to behave in a certain way that is accepted by society.
John Money, a scholar who studied intersex people in order to describe their behavior and determine whether they could be classified as male or woman, coined the term “Gender Roles” in 1955.
The debates over whether gender roles can be biologically determined or socially construed have been extensive since that time (Guiso, Guiso, et. al.
Numerous scholars and researchers have concluded that gender roles are biologically determined after the 1950s.
In 1924, Sigmund Frud, a Vienna-based scholar, stated that an individual’s anatomy is his/her destiny.
Different definitions have been given to the term “gender” in order to distinguish it from “sex”, which is a biological element.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), gender is a collection of behaviours, roles and activities that are socially understood and widely accepted as ideal behavior among men and women in a particular society.
This definition of gender by World Health Organization makes it clear that men and women are different in their gender (Gupta et al.
This assertion harkens back 1924 to Sigmund Freud’s dictum that the anatomy of an individual determines their destiny. Thus, the argument that gender roles in society are socially construed is not supported.
Through its scientific studies, science has made it clear that women and men have always been distinct and different beings from their inception.
Amram Scheinfeld (1965) argues in support of the idea that men are different than their female counterparts in his book “Heredity and Environment.” He states that the difference between men and women is limited in the number of genes that each chromosome contains.
Scheinfed explains that chromes can be responsible for the transfer of inherited characteristics from one’s parent into an individual.
He stated that humans have 23 pairs (men and women) of chromosomes inside each of their cells.
The 22 chromosomes that are the same in men and women are 22. The 23rd chromosome, however, is different.
The 23rdchromosome for women is a pair from the X-chromosome. In men, it consists of both the X and the Y chromosomes.
According to Hardin & Greer (2009, pp.207), the twenty-third pair is what determines the biological makeup of males and females.
The biological differences determine which genders behave differently.
Robert Goy (1959) and William Young (1959), conducted an experiment on pigs to prove that hormones, genes, and brain function are important in shaping the behavior of men and women.
Young and Goy administered large amounts of testosterone hormone to pregnant porcines.
The pregnant pigs started to act like male pigs after the 90th-day. They were dominating other pigs and climbing other females.
Two different hormones are responsible for shaping the behavior of women and men, according to research.
First, hormones form codes in the brains prior to an individual’s birth.
Second, when an individual is born into the world, their hormones activate the codes and make them live (Levant & Richmond (2008), pp. 130-146).
These codes, which are responsible to the structure of the human body, create the feelings that differ between men and woman.
Due to their biology, mothers are born and this creates the feeling of motherhood in the female species.
In this way, even though they are not expected to be mothers, women can still fulfill their responsibilities towards their offspring.
For example, hormones activate the codes in the brains of women to produce milk. This means that a woman can produce milk for her baby regardless of her age (Malach–Pines & Kaspi–Baruch 2008, pp.306-319).
These codes are also reflected in the responsibilities of the female species to ensure her offspring is healthy and able survive.
Because of the delicate roles that women have to play in order to help their baby survive and grow, women are often characterized as caring, compassionate, innocent, sensitive, and sensitive.
This is why women tend to assume the home care roles that are meant for nursing, caring, and ensuring that the family is healthy (Meier-Pesti & Penz 2008, pp.180-196).
To ensure that the family is well taken care of, women will perform kitchen duties, such as cooking, to show their compassion and love. Additionally, they will maintain the home’s cleanliness and environment, as they are naturally sensitive.
In men, hormones can activate the codes and bring about changes in their anatomy at different times in their lives.
Males are more masculine as they grow up and become strong, making them aggressive and wanting to be dominant and subdued.
This results in them displaying aggressiveness, intelligence and hard work as well as independence and strength (Nightingale 2006, pp.165 -185).
This is why men are always seen doing hard work in the home like cutting grass or lifting loads, while women do the same for providing family care.
An experiment was carried out in Dominican Republic to illustrate the roles that gender plays within the family.
38 men who were born with a genetic disorder were given the opportunity to become girls by transforming into women.
The families kept them inside and gave them dolls.
They were also taught about the roles of women in the household, such as washing dishes and cleaning.
They were performing all these tasks while the other boys were busy running around, shouting, and playing tough games.
The bodies of both boys and girls started to change around the age 11
Contrary to what was seen in other girls, 38 boys didn’t have larger breasts despite being exposed and allowed to interact with girls.
Instead, they developed masculine characteristics.
One example was the observation that their testicles were descended and that their voices got thicker.
The boys started to have sexual fantasies towards their female counterparts.
It is clear from this experiment that gender roles can be determined biologically.
Despite being raised by boys as girls and being exposed in society to different roles, the genes of the boy revealed their identities and the result was that they were identified as males and not as women (O’Neil (2013), pp. 5).
This experiment clearly shows that how a child is raised does not define their gender roles in the future. It also does not change the biology of the child.
To gain a better understanding of the biological elements that make up a person’s gender and the roles they play in it, scientists have looked at the brain to determine the differences between men and women as well the gender roles they play.
Adams, a researcher, reported in an article entitled “Male & Female: Differences between Them.” He observed that twelve-week old girls were able to gaze longer at photos than they could at geometric figures.
However, the male counterparts paid more attention to geometrical images than the faces of photographers.
The children are still twelve weeks old and have not been exposed to socializations and teachings, but they exhibit traits similar to those of their elders.
These traits cannot be explained by enculturation.
The twelve-week-olds’ traits must be shaped by biological orientation.
These traits are similar to those that the infants exhibit and they will be the same for men and women as they age.
For example, men are more interested in mathematics and engineering, and other courses that involve figures and require deep reasoning.
However, women are more adept at nurturing and social interaction than their male counterparts.
In today’s world, engineering professions are dominated primarily by men. However, those that are inclined to social interaction like journalism and law are dominated in the present day by women (Raley & Bianchi (2006), pp.401-421).
While many campaigns are being run to mislead the public into believing that biologically determined genders are stereotypes intended to degrade members of a particular gender, there have been experiments that prove otherwise.
Camilla Benbow, her counterpart Julian Stanley, conducted an experiment to see if boys like mathematics and girls love social interaction courses.
The human brain’s structure, and the way it functions, distinguishes males and females. This is also true for the gender roles each gender plays.
The biology of an individual’s genes, hormones, brain and the way they function in the brain determines their gender. It also shapes the roles that individuals play within the social system.
Individuals’ socially defined traits are just an improvement on their biologically established traits and roles.
While cultural interaction has a significant impact on the gender roles of individuals within their social context, it doesn’t determine which roles they will be playing.
Enculturation acts only as a catalyst for gender roles already established by an individual within the society.
However, even when gender roles are altered by cultural interactions or biology, the end result isn’t as good as when the role was originally performed (O’Neil (2008), pp. 358-445).
Even though women in recent times have been able to assume roles intended for male counterparts, such as the military, while men have had to clean, the result isn’t always as satisfying as when the role was defined by an individual’s biological setup.
The military does not send women to the frontline with the same zeal and courage that their male counterparts.
Many of these women in the military serve as caretakers and communicate with their counterparts on the battlefield.
The male counterparts to these women are seen guarding the women from any attack and keeping them safe.
On the other side, it’s not unusual for women to take the gun down to care for their male counterparts. This includes dressing their wounds and cooking a meal.
Gender roles are biologically determined, not socially constructed.
But, it is vital that they both perform their biologically determined roles in a way that respects and supports all humans, male and feminine, in whatever choices they make.
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The role gender stereotypes play in entrepreneurs’ perceptions and plans to become entrepreneurs.
Entrepreneurship theory & practice, 33(2) pp.397-417.
Hardin M. and Greer J.D.
Media use, gender-role socialization and sports participation have an influence on gender-appropriate sports perceptions.
Journal of Sport Behavior, 32(2) p.207.
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An overview of research using the Male Role-Norms Inventory to examine masculinity ideologies.
The Journal of Men’s Studies (15(2), pp.130-146.
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Management career choices: The role of culture, gender and culture.
K. Meier, Penz, E. (2008)
Is it gender or sex?
Expanding the sex-based approach by adding masculinity to financial risk taking.
Journal of Economic Psychology 29(2), pp.180-196.
The nature and function of gender: gender, work, and environment.
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