Dion, a 6-year-old boy presents to the emergency room with worsening shortness o breath and an audible wheeze. He cannot speak.
Dion has been experiencing sleeplessness and a persistent dry cough throughout winter. The cough sometimes appears after vigorous exercise.
Dion has a non-remarkable medical record, with the exception of hay fever and peanut allergies.
Dion’s older brother was diagnosed with asthma in 2005 when Dion’s family moved to Australia. However, it has not been a problem since Dion’s father stopped smoking.
Dion is now diagnosed with asthma after further testing.
1) To explain the pathophysiology of the disease/disorder, you must establish the link between the patient’s risk factors as well as their aetiology.
2) Describe the signs and symptoms that are a sign of the disease/disorder’s pathophysiology.
3) You should justify your recommended diagnostic tests and treatment methods as appropriate for the diagnosis/disorder.
There are links between the patient’s risk factors and aetiology in order to account for the disease’s pathophysiology
Asthma can be described as a chronic illness of the respiratory system in which the airways become inflamed.
When certain factors cause symptoms, the airways can become swollen.
This is when the air moves in and out of your lungs (Al Durra Torio & Cavazzo, 2015).
They can lead to symptoms like wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness or no breath.
Certain risk factors were found to have triggered asthma in these patients.
Dion, the case study patient, had symptoms such as chest tightness and high pitched audible wheeze.
Research suggests that the cold weather can trigger asthmatic symptoms. However, there are certain risk factors.
Hay fever is often linked to asthmatic risk factors.
The patient’s family history of asthma can make them more susceptible to developing the disease.
Dion has not smoked, but smoking is another reason. His father did stop smoking.
Many asthma symptoms become more severe after dark, and mainly at night. This can lead to sleeplessness.
Many people call it night asthma. A sinus infection or postnasal drip could be one of the possible causes.
Patients with asthma can be sensitive to peanuts, so peanut allergy may also be involved.
While it is not clear why, Australia has an unusually high number asthma sufferers. It may be that moving to Australia might be one of his trigger factors.
Although it isn’t proven, Australian researchers have suggested that pollution may be responsible for the attacks.
There may be other factors that are responsible, but they are still unknown.
How The Disease’s Pathophysiology is Manifested Through the Signs and Symptoms of The Patient
The pathophysiology and mechanism of asthma are complex. However, the main cause of the attack is the immune response to allergens.
Both people with asthma and normal people inhale allergens, which then enter their inner airways. Antigen presenting cells then take them into their lungs (Yawn, et al. 2015).
They are pieces of the allergen to THO cells who inspect them and ignore them in people with asthma. But they have different ns.
They are converted into the Th2 cell for unknown reasons.
Interleukin 4 is thought to be released from mast cells and causes differentiation.
These newly formed TH2 cell from TH0 cells are found in some patients’ initis’ pathway to immune reactions, called the humoral immuno reactions producing antibodies (Al Loola et. al., 2014).
When they are exposed to similar antigens in the future, their antibodies recognize them and produce a humoral response.
Dion’s inflammation has been caused by this pathway, which eventually leads to thickening the airway walls. Cells proliferate after scarring, leading to remodelling of their airway (Raun and al., 2017).
When cells become larger, mucus begins to form. This eventually causes the cell-mediated immunity system to activate.
Bronchiospasm is a condition in which the airways become more active.
The hygiene hypothesis states that an imbalance of Th cells in the early years of life can lead to long-term domination in cells involved in allergic responses. This is different from cells fighting infection (Coelho, et al. 2017).
It is possible that Dion may have been exposed in the past to certain microbes that caused this suffering.
Justification For Suggested Diagnostic Testing and Treatment Modalities Listed in The Conceptmap On Their Relevance & Appropriateness for The Diagnosed Disease
The main treatment would include the short acting beta2, which are adrenergic antagonists.
These drugs are used to relieve acute symptoms and prevent exercise-induced asthma (Pearson and al., 2014).
These could be beneficial as Dion also experienced the exercise-induced effects of asthma.
Martin et. al., 2016, Antocholinergic reduces the muscarine cholinergic receptors which help to reduce intrinsic vagal tone.
Additionally, corticosteroids as well as leukotriene modificators are helpful because they help to relieve airway functions, dilate blood vessels and alter the permeability (Koinis and al., 2016).
Immuno-modulators, which are able to bind with IgG high affinity receptors of basophils and mast cells, should be available. Nurses should assess the patient’s history, assess medications, administer pharmacologic therapy, and keep a proper fluid therapy. (Morrison, et al. 2014).
A proper evaluation of the success of the interventions should also be done. Home care guidelines and a discharge plan should be provided to ensure that attacks don’t happen again.
For successful treatment, proper education and compliance are crucial.
Cluster Analysis of Acute Medical Care Providers Gives Us Insights to Targeted Pediatric Asthma Interventions.
Annals of Emergency Medicine.
A review of asthma interventions in primary schools.
Journal of Asthma, 51(8) 779-798.
Systematic review on the use of behavior modification theory in Internet-based asthma selfmanagement interventions.
Journal of medical Internet research 17(4).
The time is right to intervene in schools for asthma treatment for adolescents.
Paediatric respiratory review, 23, 50-50.
Asthma-Related co-morbidities in urban children with persistent asthma: Contributors to disparities in asthma, sleep and academic outcomes.
IMPROVING CARING AND REDUCING DISPARITIES ASTHMA and SLEEP (pp.
American Thoracic Society.
Asthma among Children With Comorbid Obesity. Intervention Development in an Urban High-Risk Community.
Health promotion practice 17(6), 880-890.
An analysis of digital asthma self management interventions: A systematic review.
Journal of medical Internet research 16(2).
Peer Reviewed – State-Based Medicaid Costs in Pediatric Asthma Emergency Departments.
Preventing chronic diseases,
Analyzing Who, What, and Where: Data for Better Targeting Resources for School?Based Asthma Interventions.
Journal of School Health, 85(4), 253-261.
A review of the baseline data of The Asthma Tools Study reveals that smoking, obesity and low levels of physical activity offer opportunities for primary asthma intervention.
NPJ primary respiratory medicine, 25, 1558.