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PSY2009 Social Psychology - Ace My Research Paper

PSY2009 Social Psychology

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Table of Contents

Section A

What is the difference between implicit and explicit attitudes?

Which of these are the true attitudes?

How can the likelihood of people being able to help in emergencies be increased using Latane’s cognitive model and Darley?

Four strategies people use to deal with threats to their self-concept.

Section B

Imagine you are a social psychology researcher who is interested in investigating the relationship between aggressive behavior and hunger in children.

Explain and justify how two research methods could be used to examine the issue.


What is the social psychological link between social representations and rumour?


Section A

Solution to A1

Explicit attitudes are situations in which someone expresses his feelings openly.

An explicit attitude refers to a person who is aware of his/her feelings towards a specific situation and expresses them to someone, article or thought.

Implicit attitude, on the other hand, means that someone is acting unconsciously while not being fully aware of the situation or circumstances.

It is evident that these attitudes are different.

Anthony Greenwald & Mahzarin Banaji defined implicit attitudes as “imperceptible traces of past understanding” that are imprecisely recognized and arbitrate positive or negative feelings or thoughts towards a particular social thing.

This implicit attitude is not under the control of a person.

However, an explicit attitude is one that is conscious of all aspects of the situation and can react accordingly.

Although it can cause harm, the explicit attitude is the honest expression of one’s feelings.

However, the second is a more deliberate behavior that can also be faked.

An explicit attitude is filled with stereotypes and prejudices, but an implicit attitude isn’t fake, instant, and not labeled in nature (Rydell & McConnell 2006).

Explicit attitudes are more weighty than implicit ones. This means that a person acts after taking into consideration the situation. But, in the case of an implicit attitude, the person will act immediately without considering the consequences.

A person’s attitude is their perception and way of thinking about the world.

It’s a psychology trend that examines the way people react to certain situations.

A group of participants can be asked to give or deny their opinions about the subject.

These answers would be specific and reveal the true situation without any making-ups.

The same answer has limitations.

This is because many times people don’t know how they should react to situations.

Here is where the true attitude lies.

The true attitude would have been revealed if the person did not react to the social pressure.

Implicit attitude can be used to test the power and articulacy the contentious approach, and the stereotype links (Cooper,

It is true that implicit attitudes are the truth of one’s attitudes, but it can sometimes be difficult to follow them due to socio-psychological pressures.

Solution to A2

It is a common phenomenon that people tend to be more willing to help out in emergencies.

The cognitive model developed by Latane-Darley explains this phenomenon.

It is made up of five steps, which help determine whether a bystander can help during an emergency.

The general public, not necessarily the person seeking to help, is a “bystander”.

First, the person will need to acknowledge that there is an issue.

Second, he must understand whether the problem is urgent.

The third step determines whether or not the individual is responsible for helping.

Fourth and fifth steps enable an individual to consider his responsibilities after understanding them (Roth and 2008).

As the bystander effect states, however, the greater the number of people who are present in an emergency, the lower the chance that they will be able get help.

Unfortunately, when someone is in an emergency, they don’t come forward to help.

Real life has seen many cases where spectators have failed to intervene to aid the victim, despite being present at the scene.

Because most people are not able to perceive the emergency and help, there is a greater likelihood that people will respond to it.

They often depend on the reaction of the crowd nearby.

Even if they do realize that they are witnessing a crime, they will not intervene or offer to help.

This is because there is more watchers, so the responsibility for helping the victim is distributed amongst them.

Kitty Genovese’s 1964 murder was the most notable example that led to the creation of this model. At the time, there were 38 people who watched the crime unfold but none of them came forward in an emergency to assist the victim.

Understanding the model they used, we see that the people actually helping in emergency situations are much more loved and respected than the rest. This is because most people won’t even know there is an emergency. Even if they did, there will be many others who will watch and not take responsibility.

The helpers are appreciated and praised by all because they are so few.

Solution for A3

A socio-psychology terminology called self concept refers to the way a person perceives and thinks about themselves.

Self-concept can also be defined as being aware of oneself.

People want to be positive about themselves. They use a variety of strategies to do so.

These strategies are used when someone comes across events that are likely to affect their positive self-concept.

These strategies are vital for psychological well-being.

SELF AFIRMATION THEORY:This theory states that individuals attempt to overcome self-discrimination and other threats by focusing upon their value in another sector.

To illustrate, if someone has become addicted to illegal substances, rather than trying to minimize the negative effects, they try to develop healthy eating habits and exercise routines that will help them overcome the threat and stress to their self-concept ((Stangor 2010)).

AVOIDANCE STRATEGY. Persuasion is one of the biggest threats to your self-concept.

Persuasion, which is the act of persuading others to change their attitudes or outlook on life, is common. It does not have to be always positive.

This can sometimes pose a risk to self-concept.

Avoidance is the best and easiest way to manage the stress of persuasion.

Avoidance does NOT mean ignorance. However, it means being selective in our interactions with others (Fransen

This strategy works best if the person stays connected to people with a positive attitude about life.

POSITIVE THINK AND ENVIRONMENT – This is a method that, although it seems simple, can prove to be the most difficult. It involves the person thinking positively about himself and others.

Self-esteem must be improved. One may have to even overestimate oneself.

It helps you to face the challenges.

Positive thinking is directly linked to high self-esteem. This has an impact on mental health (Mann

A positive outlook is the best strategy to deal with any threats.

SELF CONSCIOUS Theory: A self conscious theory is another strategy that can be used to help people cope with the risks associated with self concept.

It refers to a state in which a person puts importance on their own concerns as well as those of others.

Private self consciousness is when one examines oneself and feels towards oneself. The latter focuses on paying attention to what others think of them as individuals.


These two self awareness techniques will enable a person to think about themselves from a dual perspective, which will help him/her cope with any self-consciousness threat.

Section B

Solution to B1

Children are more likely to be hungry than they are to display aggressive behaviour.

Common observation is that children who are hungry throw tantrums about irrelevant issues.

The Centre on Hunger and Poverty states that children who aren’t fed properly can have developmental issues, leading to emotional as well as psychological stress.

It is evident that aggressive behavior patterns and lack of proper nutrition are closely related.

There have been numerous studies that support this conclusion.

Research shows that malnutrition in children can have an impact on brain development and impulse control.

Children who are hungry may be willing to go to great lengths to obtain food.

The brain needs at least 20% of the nutrition it needs to function properly. A brain that isn’t getting enough nutrients can cause a brain to behave in an abnormal manner.

Studies have shown that a child’s ability to regulate their impulses can be permanently affected by a lack of nutrition.

In 2016, researchers at the University of Texas of Dallas concluded that poor nutrition is responsible for insufficient control over impulses that lead to aggression and violence (Ledger).

According to research, brain development can be affected by a hungry stomach. This has resulted in aggression and eating foods that are low in nutrition.

Also, hunger can be linked to inadequate nutrition.

Another study from Australia showed that one in six children between 8 and 14 years old goes to sleep with an empty stomach.

These children have a variety of issues, such as stomach aches and nervousness.

The most severe problem is their emotional quotient.

American Studies revealed that children who are hungry were more likely to be depressed and aggressive than those who weren’t.

Research has shown that simply satisfying hunger does not prevent aggression in children.

Brain damage can also be caused by food that isn’t nutritionally balanced.

Intake of iodine can directly be linked to cognitive decline in children, as an example.

It can be concluded that while hunger causes aggression, improper eating can also lead to a child’s behavior (Parletta & Segal 2016, 2016).

This shows that hunger is a leading cause of poor eating habits and can have a detrimental effect on the brain and behavior.

Solution to B2

A key element of a successful survival strategy is self content.

If one doesn’t feel satisfied within oneself, it can be difficult to connect with others from the same and different cultures.

The cultural differences can have a negative impact on interactions, which in turn affects the content of one’s self.

The term culture refers to language, beliefs, values and dress. It also includes knowledge, customs, food habits and skills.

Culture is believed to be passed from one generation to the next.

The research was conducted in two areas.

The first is those for which culture is important and the second, those for who culture is subordinated to other factors.

Therefore, self content can vary from person to person. It is not the same for every culture.

One person may want to highlight their culture while engaging in cross-cultural conversations and find satisfaction in this. The other person might be more inclined towards their culture, but feel content in keeping the relationships the same.

The concept of people has changed with regard to cultural differences. It has also altered their thought processes. It is evident that this is psychological in regards to finding satisfaction and contentment only within one’s own culture.

People can minimize differences between cultures in their perceptions and interactions. If they are mentally capable of adapting to new situations and finding satisfaction from them, it is possible to reduce these differences.

For some people, however, culture is a source of satisfaction. These individuals may interact and express themselves differently in different cultures.

People often interact and express themselves in their local language, regardless of whether they can understand it.

This provides them with a feeling of satisfaction, as they know their language well and try to preserve their culture among the many other cultures around them (Neyer & Harzing 2008).

This is more common among minority cultures.

A person who is culturally specific in one culture would find it difficult to accept others in the same environment. He would also feel unhappy and not be able to find satisfaction in his own life.

So even if someone finds satisfaction by only accepting his culture, they must still respect other cultures in order for them to survive in the society.

Solution to B3

Before we discuss the socio psychological link between the concept social representations, and rumour, it is crucial to understand their meaning.

It is defined as a collection of ideas, values and practices that interact with other members of the society it represents.

This is a method of communicating with people about topics they are already familiar.

A rumour on the other hand is any piece of news or story that is of general interest to the public. It may be true or false.

The news spreads like a firefly in the forest.

Both concepts have a strong connection.

Social activity is vital for survival in this world. It can have a profound effect on psychological development.

To be a part of a group or community, he must also take part in rumours.

These concepts closely link attitude to opinion. Social representation and rumoured stories are both a way for people to express their opinions, but they can also be used as a tool to determine one’s attitude.

Social representation theories, however, are more concerned with how an individual interacts with different environmental factors, social factors, and common situations.

According to Howarth (2006), social representation can be described as social when a piece of news is discussed among different people and influences their behaviour.

Interacting people do not care about the news’s sanctity but discuss the same to be part of society.

Because rumours cannot spread independently, they are part of the social representation (

Participation in the social conversation is required.

This shows that rumours can spread between people who are socially connected.

The conspiracy theory is another term that is often associated with rumours.

This theory describes the events that occur because of a secret plot devised by a group involving powerful plotters.

These two ideas are closely related because rumours about uncertain stories and conspiracy theories can arise when individuals don’t have any control over their current situation and attempt to make sense of it using stories (Oaklander (2015)).

The result is that people try to connect dots that aren’t real.

This causes them to spread a different version, which turns out to be a rumour.

A conspiracy is believed to be the result of trusting another conspiracy.

In 1999 there was a rumour about a millennium virus. However, as more people accepted the bug, they became more inclined to believe in another conspiracy theory that was also false.

People become suspicious and fearful of more powerful people because they believe in conspiracy.

People can take control of their emotions and escape from conspiracy theories. They will not be part of the rumours that follow (Brotherton (2015)).

As conspiracy theories are based on rumours, it is clear that there is a socio-psychological connection.

Centre on Poverty and Hunger.

The Children’s Food Insecurity and Hunger:



Why Don’t we Help?

There is less to it than there are people.

The Science of Attitudes.

New York.

Relationship between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes: The impact of application conditions.

Europe’s Journal of Psychology.

(2015). Strategies and motives to resist persuasion: An integrative framework.

How Social Representations have influenced attitudes theories: The consensual as well as the reified.

Theory and Psychology.

Violence is fueled by hunger.

Self-esteem as a broad-spectrum approach to mental wellness promotion.

Health Education Research.

The Influence of culture on interpersonal interactions: Five lessons learned from the European Commission

Here’s Why Conspiracy Theories are Popular.

It’s Over.

Poor nutrition can increase the risk of mental illness among children.

Psychology of the bystander and tips to increase your chances of getting help.

Understanding Implicit & Explicit Attitudes Change : A systems analysis of Reasoning.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

How the Social Context Influences Helping

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