PSY111 Foundations Of Psychology For The Health And Human Services

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Table of Contents

1. Psychological Disorders and Their Treatments

Task 1

Heather Case Study

Heather, a University student at 20 years old, is terrified of speaking to people she doesn’t know.

She preferred large lectures during her first and 2nd years. This allowed her to hide at the back of the lecture theatre, and she was able to not talk to students or take part in class discussions.

Heather scored high in all subjects.

Heather has to now attend classes in smaller classes, where participation and small groups are required.

Heather fears that others will find her embarrassing and will make fun of her.

Heather worries about her sleep and considers quitting University.

Task 2

Identify the psychological disorder.

Give a description of the disorder (not just an Anxiety but Social Anxiety Disorder). Include key symptoms.

Task 3

Based on your diagnosis in TASK 2 (above), you should choose one of the two treatments that you think would be most effective to treat the disorder.

Your response should include a rationale for why the two therapeutic approaches you chose would be the most effective. This can be based on evidence from literature, suitability of the techniques, and how these therapies work together.

A list of therapeutic approaches



Cognitive therapy (either Beck’s or REBT)

CognitiveBehavioural Treatment

Acceptanceand Commitment Therapy




Exercise 2: Social Psychology – Social Influence, Attitude Change & Persuasion

Task 1

Google images (or a similar image search engine, e.g.) allows you to choose an image of an ad from an advertisement.

Bing images

You should include a hyperlink to the image within your assignment. Make sure the link works before you submit your assignment.

Task 2

Discuss how the advertisement was designed to change people’s behaviours and attitudes.

You can use the advertisement as an example to show principles of social influence, persuasion and attitude change in your response.

Task 3

Based on your research and knowledge about attitudes and behavioural changes, how effective do YOU think this advertisement would be in changing peoples’ attitudes and behaviours?

This exercise will require you to demonstrate your understanding of the various theoretical perspectives on motivation.

Task 1

You can use two of the five motivation perspectives (psychodynamic behaviourist cognitive humanistic evolutionary and cognitive) to give two explanations for why someone might choose to enroll in university courses.

Task 2

Ryan and Deci discuss intrinsic motivation as well as extrinsic motivation in the article below.

Ryan and Deci (2000) say that intrinsic motivation is when someone does something simply because they find it interesting or fun.

It is the ability to do something in order to achieve a distinct outcome.

Ryan and Deci’s Self-Determination Theory is described in this article. Assuming you have an interest in your chosen area of study, what can your lecturers do?

Task 3

Many challenges are faced by health and other professionals when it comes time to ensure clients follow their recommendations for changes in their health behaviours or other requirements.

It is important that you understand the motivation of the client when assessing their likelihood of following treatment advice. Also, compliance failures (not following recommendations) are also considered.

For this Exercise:

Based on the area of your study, provide a brief example of what would require a client change their behavior (e.g.

Failure to follow the doctor’s advice to attend regular appointments. Not adhering or parole to bail conditions. Not completing homework tasks.

Your response should be:

Yourclinical may not be in compliance with the best theory of motivation. Use in-text citations as support for your answer.

Let’s give you an example of the way this theory could help you to approach your clinical recommendations with this patient in future.


Task 1

Heather clearly suffers from Social Phobia. It is a type anxiety disorder.

Task 2

Social Phobia, also known as Social Anxiety Disorder, is also called this disorder.

Social Phobia can be defined as fear of unfamiliar situations or any situation in which an individual is at risk of being watched or evaluated by others.

These situations may become so terrifying for some that they are unable to socialize or avoid them altogether.

Social phobia is caused by the fear of being judged and evaluated in public.

The Diagnostic Statistic Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM V), lists the following as the diagnostic criteria for social anxious disorder (Heimberg et. al.

Fear or anxiety that is observed in social situations, will be evaluated by the outside world.

You might meet strangers in social situations or go out to a public event.

Feeling disregarded by the external environment

Social situations can trigger anxiety.

The patient is more inclined to avoid social situations.

Anxiety and fear are out of proportion.

For more than six consecutive months, the avoidance of social situations continues.

Distressed mind is responsible for the impairment of professional and personal life.

Anxiety or distress can be caused by any substance abuse.

Fear and distress is not due any other mental disorder.

Heather is a University student aged 20 who has difficulty speaking in public.

Also, it has been recorded that she chose large lectures for her first and second year so that she could not talk to students or take part in class discussions.

She is afraid to attend any college events.

Heather clearly shows symptoms that match the criteria of Social Phobia as defined by DSM V.

Task 3

The best way to treat social phobia is to overcome the fear that certain situations can cause anxiety.

There are two main types of therapies that can be used to treat social anxiety.

Exposure Therapy (a type of Cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT), and Group Therapy are both used to treat social phobia.

CBT is a technique that helps patients identify their anxieties and the situations that cause them.

There are many methods to manage social anxiety.

Exposure therapy, out of all the options, is the best method to control social anxiety.

A professional counselor helps the patient feel at ease in public places.

The counselor helps the patient imagine themselves in a social situation. She also offers suggestions on how to deal with it.

The counselor will observe that the patient is capable of handling public confrontations without causing anxiety.

It could be going out for lunch or attending a party.

After a series of public meetings, patients feel safe in the knowledge that they are not being judged or evaluated.

The solution to social phobia can be found by exposing the patient to the environment in small ways.

Another treatment for social phobia is group therapy.

Multiple people can join a group to work on their therapeutic goals.

Each group is composed of five to ten members.

As a group, participants work together.

In the contexts of group processes, participants can explore their own problems.

There are several types of group therapy. The self-help group is one option. This group allows individuals with similar experiences to meet together without professional supervision.

Social phobic people are exposed to group therapy, which allows them to become more open to the world.

Group Therapy is a way for individuals to share their experiences and learn from each other (Caine Wijesinghe & Winter 2014).

It is important to take time in order to treat any mental disorder.

The goal of treatment is to change an individual’s behavior.

For treating social phobic patients, two types of treatment are required.

At the beginning, exposure therapy is used. Then, group therapy follows.

These two treatments help patients overcome their social anxiety.

Refer to

Personal Styles and Neurosis (RLE, Group Therapy): Implications to Small Group Psychotherapy.

Maximizing exposure therapy – An inhibitory learning method.

Behaviour research, therapy, 58. 10-23.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy in chronic pain: Innovations, effectiveness, and directions to research.

American Psychologist 69(2):153.


Depression and anxiety, 31(6): 472-479.

Task 1 Hyperlink

Task 2

The advert depicts someone who suffers from social anxiety.

AADA is an institution of tharapy that offers therapy for people with social phobia.

AADA (Anxiety and depression Association of America), is an international non-governmental organization that is fully dedicated to the treatment and prevention of anxiety, OCD and depression.

AADA’s mission centers on improving the quality and life of those suffering from anxiety disorders.

Mental disorders remain a stigmatized subject in society.

People around the world still have negative attitudes towards those suffering from mental disorders (Tsai, Bagozzi (2014)).

This advertisement is a bold step in the right direction for these types of problems.

Social phobia can be treated if it is caught early and properly treated.

The advertisement not only informs society about the problem, but also provides information about how to seek help.

The advertisement makes it clear that mental health issues can be discussed publicly through the media.

This will encourage the affected individuals to speak out and seek treatment. They can then live a normal, happy life.

Task 3

Social influences refer to any external influence on the behavior, opinions, and emotions of the majority.

Persuation refers to the influence of society, beliefs, and social changes.

You can observe social influence in many forms. Compliance is when someone agrees with another person but keeps their own decisions private. Identification is when another person influences a person. Internalization is when people accept a belief or behavior and agree to it privately.

The principles of social influence outlined by Cialdini are based upon six core principles.

Reciprocity, which is the act of recompense for a favour.

Reciprocity is the basis of all social phenomena (Dishion 2016).

Social change is only possible if there’s reciprocity.

A two-sided policy of give and take is crucial for any society that wants to change.

People who are committed and consistent will be able to make any goal or commit to any idea, goal or idea. This makes them more likely to be honored because they helped to establish the idea.

Thirdly, Social Proof refers to the social changes that are made by those whom society looks up to (Lambert 2017).

Their positive experiences should result in such positive changes that their confederates will look up to them.

Fourthly Authority refers to the acknowledgement of a person for their contribution towards society’s changes.

Fifthly, Liking is the concept of attraction towards a particular idea that could bring about change in society.

The third is scarcity. This refers to any factor that causes a rise in the demand for the product.

The society needs to change.


Steps towards a social neuroscience that predicts adaptive responses: Social influences on executive function development in children and teens.

Journal of abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 56-61.

Workers, Factories and Social Movements in India.

Princeton University Press.

Contribution Behaviors in Virtual Communities: Emotional and Social Influences.

Mis Quarterly, 38(1): 143-163.

Study of the impact of social change and birth cohort on subjective wellbeing in older Chinese adults. A cross-temporal meta analysis, 1990-2010.

Task 1

It is well-known that the external environment influences behaviour.

Their requirments reflect the individual’s needs.

Drives refer to the state that is arousal and associated with unfulfilled desires like hunger or thirst.

The need to be driven to select a University course is essential in order to be able to pick any course.


If students lack the drive or motivation to pursue further studies in a subject, it can endanger their career.

The cognitive perspective of motivation is essential, too.

For the motivation to decide on a subject to study further, you can use goal setting and expectency theories.

An individual must have the desire to succeed in life. For that reason, it is important to set goals and objectives.

The student should have both a cognitive as well as a behavioristic view in order to select a subject to study in the near future (Reeve (2014)

Task 2

The self determination theory uses the human motivation and personality as an emperical way to employ a meta-theory about organisms that focuses on one’s inner resources in order to develop their personality and self regulation.

Motivation refers to energy, direction, persistence, and equifinality. These are all aspects of activation.

The central problem in psychology has been motivation.

There are two kinds of motivation.

There are two types of motivation.

Extrinsic motivation is, however, governed more by the external environment.

Task 3

It is assumed that the student has a keen interest in biology. He chose to study Biology at the University.

The student wants to continue his studies in the current subject.

Three factors must be considered for student’s own benefit: Competency and Relatedness. Autonomy is used to deliver the lectures.

Competence is the ability to control outcomes and mastery through experience.

Therefore, Lecures in class should be competent enough to give students sufficient knowledge.

A student should feel connected with the exercises and have a sense of connection to others in the class.

For a good understanding of the topic, reciprocation is essential.

Autonomy, a universal urge to be causal agents in one’s own life and act in harmony within one’s whole self, is last but not least.

Automy can be applied in real life by students who reflect on it during lectures.

Many times, health care professionals have to deal with multiple patients.

One patient who is socially phobic has resisted treatment recommendations and skipped follow ups.

The clinician must make socially phobic patients feel motivated to improve their lives.

Social phobics will always resist public interaction.

In such cases, the therapist may use Maslow’s theory for motivation, which is part of the Humanistic approach to Motivation. According to the theory of motitiation, self esteem is what gives people the urge to be recognized in society and earn respect for their work (Jackson and al.

A socially-phobic person won’t feel the urge to be recognised.

This is because to be accepted in society one must interact with them.

The therapist can stimulate an individual’s inner motivation and increase their desire to fulfill this need.

The therapist should motivate and encourage the patient towards a goal.

The therapist provides direction and guidance to patients so that they can plan for their future.

The therapist will direct them to possible avenues to increase self-esteem and to live a fulfilled life.

The Humanistic Approach is able to cure social phobic patients.

Refer to

Precarious work: Understanding a new social determinant of health.

Annual review on public health, 35: 229-253.

Precarious work: Understanding a new social determinant of health.

Annual review on public health, 35: 229-253.

Understanding motivation and emotion.

John Wiley & Sons.

The Concept of Motivation, Its Types and Motivation Subjects.

Journal of Clinical Healthcare, 14 (2014_3), 02/05.

The prism of psychology is used to improve patient care: Maslow’s hierarchy applies to sedation and delirium in the intensive care unit.

Journal of critical Care, 29(3): 438-444.

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